One of the most startling impressions that one takes away from seeing the reunited Migration Series at the Museum of Modern Art is how current the paintings still feel—in a way that Céline still does, or Christopher Isherwood, or John Steinbeck, documentors of a very specific moment of transition, faithfully recording sensitive observations. Jacob Lawrence’s cycle of 60 paintings on the subject of the Great Migration, during which 6 million African Americans ultimately left the rural South, is both a landmark work for an artist who was just 23 years old when he began it and a work of historical importance in American art of the 20th Century.
Lawrence, who had dropped out of school when he was 16, was encouraged by his single mother to take art classes and visit museums. He studied at the Harlem Art Workshop, which was in the basement of the New York Public Library branch on West 135th Street (now the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture). There he met the painter and muralist Charles Alston who became the first of several mentors who were struck by his talent and drive. Lawrence received a scholarship to the American Artists School on West 14th Street where his fellow students included Ad Reinhardt and Elaine de Kooning. There he soon developed a personal pictorial style, which he called “dynamic cubism,” of jagged compositions in bold, flat colors. He befriended and was influenced by writers including Jay Leyda, Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, and Langston Hughes.
Jacob Lawrence, Panel 4: "The Negro was the largest source of labor to be found after all others had been exhausted," 1940-41. Casein tempera on hardboard. 18 x 12" (45.7 x 30.5 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of Mrs. David M. Levy. Peter Nesbett, Michelle Dubois, Jacob Lawrence: paintings, drawings, and murals (1935-1999), Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2000, cat P41-01, pl. 4, p. 49
It was possibly the confluence of all these influences that make the Migration paintings so visually compelling over such a large cycle. Comparisons to Giotto or Michelangelo might be easy, but Lawrence was working on small panels, painting in casein almost like an animator filling in the colored “cells” of a film. While his simplified range of shape and color speed us along from panel to panel, he still manages to shift mood and feeling, like different scenes in a film, through superb character direction. In Panel 4, which is captioned (Lawrence wrote the captions to all the works and meant for them to be an explanatory verse) “The Negro was the largest source of labor to be found after all others had been exhausted,” Lawrence shows a man hammering a spike, in mid-stroke. The spike is oversized but resembles a railroad spike, and the hammer feels heavy. Both these inanimate objects draw our attention, as he has left the figure more of an abstract shape than a human portrait, emphasizing the dehumanization of the people. Incongruously the action takes place inside, in an empty room with one window. With equal simplicity Lawrence gives us Panel 16, captioned “Although the Negro was used to lynching, he found this an opportune time for him to leave where one had occurred.” Here is the emotional devastation of Picasso’s Blue Period: a woman in a red dress slumps over a sharply raked dinner table with only an empty bowl and spoon, a metaphor for the emptiness we feel in her.
Jacob Lawrence, Panel 16: "Although the Negro was used to lynching, he found this an opportune time for him to leave where one had occurred," 1940-41. Casein tempera on hardboard. 18 x 12" (45.7 x 30.5 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of Mrs. David M. Levy. Peter Nesbett, Michelle Dubois, Jacob Lawrence: paintings, drawings, and murals (1935-1999), Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2000, cat P41-01, pl. 16, p. 50
Like any good documentarian, Lawrence does not fail to give both sides of the story. A nattily dressed couple looks at us with disdain, if they are looking at all, in Panel 53: “The Negroes who had been North for quite some time met their fellowmen with disgust and aloofness.” And the final panel, Panel 60, which reads “And the migrants kept coming,” leaves us in awe of the sheer mass of displaced humanity that was breaking in great waves against the shores of the industrial North.
Jacob Lawrence, Panel 60: "And the migrants kept coming," 1940-41. Casein tempera on hardboard 12 x 18" (30.5 x 45.7 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of Mrs. David M. Levy. Peter Nesbett, Michelle Dubois, Jacob Lawrence: paintings, drawings, and murals (1935-1999), Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2000, cat P41-01, pl. 60, p. 55
Three additional rooms in the exhibition include other accounts of the Migration, including novels and poems by writers such as Langston Hughes, Claude McKay, and Richard Wright; photographs by Dorothea Lange, Ben Shahn, Gordon Parks, and Robert McNeill; sociological tracts by Carter Woodson, Charles Johnson, Emmett Scott, and Walter White; and paintings by Charles Alston, Romare Bearden, and Charles White. In an effort to show that Lawrence’s work still resonates, particularly in our current moment with regard to race relations in America, the poet Elizabeth Alexander, in collaboration with MoMA, has commissioned ten poets to write works inspired by Lawrence. One of the commissioned works is a children’s book about Lawrence by Sharifa Rhodes-Pitts and Christopher Myers. Mr. Myers, an illustrator, said his visits to schools and juvenile detention centers made him realize that children needed to realize that their own lives could give them models of success beyond what they find in the lyrics and videos of so much popular music.
Indeed, it is music that might be the most important element, both as an inspiration to Lawrence and a bridge for younger viewers today. A side room of text, music, and video of the music that was both an influence to Lawrence and a sonic record of the Harlem Renaissance accompanies this exhibition to great affect. Thomas “Fats” Waller, Louis Armstrong, Mahalia Jackson, and Lead Belly provide background material that has the musical equivalent and range of Lawrence’s paintings. Billie Holiday singing “Strange Fruit” (in the accompanying video documentary) provides a fitting coda to Lawrence’s immigrant song.
(Image at top: Jacob Lawrence, Panel 3: "In every town Negroes were leaving by the hundreds to go North and enter into Northern industry. From every southern town migrants left by the hundreds to travel north," 1940-1941, Casein tempera on hardboard, 12 × 18" (30.5 × 45.7 cm), The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.)