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Yuan Chu Chen Why Chinese contemporary art is difficult to participate the world-class museum collection

Why Chinese contemporary art is difficult to participate the world-class museum collection
Yuan Chu Chen

The New York Times reported that many artists and curators in China believe that are uncommon in the world of Chinese art in important galleries and museums Collections. While China's important art collectors in the world achieved high results in the auction, but in comparison, Chinese art still in the absence of the situation. Cultural observers were of the view that various political and social factors led to this situation, such as censorship, creativity subject to the education system, and so on.

Official Chinese contemporary art beyond its control, does not like government-run Association Academy Academy, and Royal art completely under its control for the propaganda of the regime, and contemporary art is often derided as pertinent now, so officials began to think opposite of contemporary art is to the disadvantage of the regime. Later, because of a lot of contemporary art an unstoppable trend, when official policy, is stone dead, art must control the situation and grasp the impact of the regime. Official authorities from denial of contemporary art, opposition and silenced, wise gradually turned increasingly active in support and sponsorship to the contemporary arts. But this "legalized" process to new century ten years late has gradually produced problem, legalized is in Hou ideology framework within for of, this framework given contemporary art must meaning of than Shang century 890 generation Catholic of limits, but legalized always only is a half legalized or not full legalized, new ten years of culture pattern is a to national ideology led Xia inclusive market and civil form of "a Yuan Xia of diversity". Legalization of contemporary arts of the new decade, lies primarily with the harmless control under the premise of allowing Western avant-garde art forms into art, Academy of fine arts and national exhibitions. Whenever possible "hazardous uncontrollable" of contemporary art such as against the official political system, criticized the leaders for senior officials, there are important symbols of diagnosis and treatment, sporadic acts of art, reflecting the strong art of removing the themes of social criticism, has not been able to "legalize". Friction still exists between the ideologies, such as the August 2008 Li Yifan Iberian Centre of contemporary art of the drowned were forcibly banned by the Public Security Bureau in the early 90 to the medium-term, performance artist ideology is reflected directly on the screen, and can only be used with derision and leisure representative of abusive gesture to express the ideology of "symbols". February 5, 2009 held in Beijing today Art Museum documentary film premiere of the seven deadly sins, National Art Museum of China in Beijing to commemorate the 1989 's "Chinese modern art exhibition" the 20 anniversary of the exhibition is the first time in the history of Chinese contemporary art, is so far the only time Vanguard artist debut in mainstream mass at the National Museum of art collective. Documentary simply shows a number of valuable historical photographs, video and installation art, recalled when Wen Pulin, and Xiaolu, Li Shan, and wushan spot, and Zhang Nian, and Wang Deren, Zhu Yanguang, Ren Xiaoying, Wang Lang, and Cosmos caused by great artists such as representative of the explosive effect of a sensational seven sex art, – known as the "seven deadly sins". An hour before the screening, "relevant departments" requirements check the Gallery of images, and under their supervision in the relevant paragraphs of "fast forward" was banned immediately after processing. Movie play instrument is cleared up, the crowd gradually dispersed, crowded showrooms open up. Placed in front of the poster, also quietly got new. Leave in silence, as if everything that had just happened. This means the imposition of ideology and no rest, still faces a game of contemporary art, ideology did not give legitimacy to contemporary art, is only allowed in limited direction. Of course, this event occurs in the contemporary art of less frequency than before, even in the case, nor does it constitute as early 80 and 90 artists and critics as political pressure.

Representatives of Chinese contemporary art and ideology of my hiep is two parallel systems, which between them, the subtle rivalry between the two is subtle. The artists and critics of China has enough patience and wisdom in a complex reality, taken at different times and different contexts different ways to deal with different problems. The other hand, the national potential in further reform is inevitable. Now everyone in the system has entered a "contemporary art" regardless of their art and contemporary art without wind horse cattle and contemporary art has become a Grand Champion, who are willing to put on. Institutional change and actually suffering for private capital, artists saw in the system outside the system, the temptation to market, is not willing to give up advantages step down to a non-mainstream institutional form, on the premise of temporarily difficult to change the existing pattern, institutional and capital actively adopt the legalization of "win" approach. Capital interest groups also hope to expand the unlimited effect of limited capital, the best way out is to let countries involved in contemporary art, attached to official institutions and private institutions. Contemporary art of national doctrine of in new ten years late constantly enhanced, Beijing double years exhibition while hanging with international double years exhibition banner, actually used of is in official led presided over Xia collective selection of national exhibition mode; Shanghai double years exhibition surface Shang used has international strategy exhibition people system, but into has minority culture bureaucratic turns power of "mahjong ring"; culture established has contemporary art exhibition Award Fund, but many non-contemporary art exhibition also into award list. This "people" confused art phenomenon more pronounced late in the new decade. Since the beginning of 2000 Shanghai Biennale, official Chinese contemporary art began to set up the stand, Chengdu Biennale, Guangzhou triennial of contemporary art exhibitions also followed in promoting Chinese contemporary art is not. Civil opened massive sponsorship of Chinese contemporary art, like Chengdu biennial exhibition is a success by means of local businessman Deng Hong-sponsored. 2002 China Gallery curator fan di ' an planning Sao Paulo double years exhibition China Museum; 2003 China Government official by invited to National Museum of on behalf of participate in Venice double years exhibition, and are planning established permanent of China Museum; 2003 culture to fan di ' an, and Hou Han as, and kejiabi for strategy exhibition people, Yu Germany Berlin Hamburg railway station contemporary gallery held "life in at this time" exhibition, this is China official first times in overseas hosted large contemporary art exhibition. Series of official contemporary art exhibitions in Paris, Croatia started immediately, the Ministry of culture also start system invited to the Venice Biennial Exhibition of international importance. In the Gallery, as chaired fan di ' an Art Museum of China, Wang huangsheng host Guangdong Museum, Li Lei auspices of Shanghai Art Museum, National Art Museum of China's most important, doing a lot of important work showing consistently see contemporary art as evil beast of official control and reception of contemporary art is being strengthened, academic of public art museums being built, contemporary art's impact began to be valued. On November 13, 2009, a subordinate official of China Academy of art "contemporary Chinese art" was formally established in Beijing. First Dean of the hospital was used to paint the weather-beaten but were subjected to ideological criticism of the father of the painter Luo Zhongli. Luo Zhongli oath at the ceremony will be based on State ideology guiding the creation of contemporary art. List of the first members was that neutral, Xu Bing, Xu Jiang, Zhou chunya, Sui Jianguo, Wei Ershen, Cai Guo-Qiang, Wang guangyi, Wang Jianwei, Zhang Xiaogang, Yongqing and Wang gongxin, forest seedlings, Yue minjun, prospect, Fang Lijun, Liu Xiaodong, Zeng fanzhi, Feng mengbo, Song Dong, Qiu zhijie. Is scheduled to attend the inaugural ceremony, congratulated the people and most of the party and State departments such as the Central propaganda Department, the Ministry of culture, the Chinese literary and art circles, the senior officials of the Association of fine artists. Officials began active involvement in development of Chinese contemporary art, national resources and contemporary art for the first time, a combination of Chinese contemporary art, maybe will be promoted as mainstream, and to establish an open, continuous and permanent communication platform. In short, China's establishment of the Institute of contemporary art is understood as a once accused underground contemporary art to be legitimate. Despite list in the are power factors led to of results, but, has is national artists Association Congress work report accused has of political wave General and playing world realism on China image of distorted of artist were like Zhang Xiaogang, and Wang guangyi, and Fang Lijun, and Yue minjun such of stars type popular artist not by formal program of selection (as science academician) on sloppy admitted, description official eager to to control contemporary art make of for regime service. This does not amount to an official concessions on the ideological standards, but expressed the official determination to grasp the situation and the capacity for rapid response. Who distort the image of China's contemporary arts biggest names take art "legalization" of the opportunity to gain political reputation at the same time, have become important members of the official Arts Agency. There is no doubt that these academicians were impossible to official institutions or ideologies have questioned more Needless to say treason any major substantive, this is the official face of contemporary art this particular and difficult monster to come up with proper solutions. As for the sloppy procedures, procedure unreasonable, only in dire circumstances of official urgency and emergency sudden political campaigns than in the past, nothing by it. "Contemporary art" was established and raised a series of issues such as institutional arguments, for example candidates capacity to undertake research and development of contemporary art and the role of system of this anti-"Heroes" are exactly what academic thinking, their level of artistic creation is there an artist should have the spirit and personality of the soul, and so on. Academician who has neither publicly available through the official recruitment has no clear inclusion criteria, no transparent selection process, let alone any public opinion, which is harmless, mode of operation since its founding in official institutions always are common. Association of Chinese contemporary art, like any other, and does not represent the vast majority of artists. This is beyond doubt. In any event, from a positive point of view, may wish to say that the establishment of Chinese contemporary art is a good thing: contemporary art were recognized by the Government for the first time. At least contemporary art under the control of the Government was likely to spread to the entire community, which artists, curators, Museum, and all those engaged in art is a good thing. Furthermore, branches of Central Government agencies are implemented in the provinces, about artistic achievements can be recognized easily, increase people's interest in contemporary art and contemporary art, subject and touch the official premise and the basic interests of the regime had a better rendering, so the establishment of the Institute of contemporary art have to say is the official smart policy success. Indicates that the Chinese Government is not rigid, sticking to the principle of the premise, good flexibility to changes in government policy, the institution will become loose. Contemporary art was sought after several generations, will not settle for forever being regarded as heresy. Officially recognized by the official institutions of contemporary art, and finally "historical mission" has been completed, not to mention finalists paint prices will rise, entries will be marginal interests entered the Academy of fine arts textbooks, and so on, their work would have a major artistic breakthrough, it doesn't matter, their success to the return. However outside the system, outstanding artists will go beyond them, it is an inevitable trend. The beginning of Chinese contemporary art on the international stage in the 21st century, Chinese artists into the international system at the same time, touch of Chinese contemporary art is the commercial impact of the tide and the new situation of colonialism after forming. Chinese contemporary art is a mature system operating in the West: "artist/curator, critic-Media-Gallery-collector-art-auction house. Reality is inseparable from the commercial interests of the arts community for contemporary art, artists have to deal with standards issues that were not only works of art, but more importantly is the operation of the market, is how to enter the established rules of international and domestic art and State of the system and in the tide of mainstream, which is very complex, must take into account the interests of all parties seek common relationship.

We realized Western of and local of relationship with history main of confirmed, Western history home and thinkers of pioneering self critique and reflection, for we China scholars evaluation and described China themselves of history provides has a open and differentiation card of vision, make we easy to see modern, and local of these problem of context and angle, while, also let we see in national national internal also also exists with history narrative main of confirmed. We call it "formalism" in terms of Visual Forms of Western modern art continuously driven mainly by its revolution and criticism of aesthetic modernity concept, but most of the modernist schools of abstract and geometric forms look and has nothing to do with reality, and not related to politics. But Western "formalist" who claim that their art apart from personality also has a psycho-social nature. Art forms of China's modernization and China's internal and external reality in 100 years of change, the historical narration of contemporary art in China in the last 30 years, with the last 30 years about China's socio-political, economic and cultural development. In various popular forms of realism to the entire 20th century analysis revealed that all these can't get rid of practical and utilitarian realism art, mostly succumbed to institutional and market power and beg to differ in the mass of the ordinary nature. Successful genre eventually always towards the conservative, rigid, and this in the history of Western art and art history are in China. Eventually all forms of realism in 20th century China is towards the conservative, to profit, power and kitsch, the reason for this is that they initially did not truly build up their own ideals and beliefs, most of the proceed from the practical and utilitarian, not beyond reality to look at the nature of reality, and vulgar accepted to succumb to reality and banal level of audience. Not without political ideas, is not the urge to reproduce reality. But false, cynical realism and please vulgar public capital markets. Such realism is not the noble elite artists and cultural representatives, in contrast, is vulgar to the public interest of intellectual give and give, which caused art kitsch kitsch. Meaning of art is neither by the so-called social "content" or "style" as decided by the. Art is the artist's observation of reality and understanding the meaning of realistic factors and the infusion of the arts. Chinese people over the years to "formalism" misunderstanding and prejudice that the formalism does not care a reality. But beyond the Visual metaphor, aesthetic art of independent way of reality to virtual reality, its core is the realism of "Visual reality" beyond, of low vulgar reality beyond.

Chinagovernment has rich political experience. More mature after the baptism through a variety of natural and man-made disasters. In the area of socio-economic, and after eating big loss of the Socialist planned economy, reform and opening up introduced the capitalist market economy makes people see the light, large-scale development of private capital for State enterprises to believe. However in recent years, "Guo Jin, min TUI" and "two sides" phenomenon has led to the economic confusion, where "State" is not a real country to enter, but a nationalised institution-to enter. Nationalized institution is not the same as full with all benefit from, they just State-owned establishment and enjoy all the privileges, such as oil, tobacco, banking, insurance, some industries not only folk are not allowed to operate, the Government will be restricted to designated agency franchise. Where those in power are vested if turned a certain profit remaining self-dominance is large, officials pay up or down. This is actually not a fair mechanism, profit is due to the privileges of these government-run institutions, should be people, not special credit staff, but the general public is not entitled to intervene. This state-owned enterprise "State" and the real state of "country" is a difference, just a few people take advantage of countries making itself and the resurgence of interest. This pattern in the distribution of power in the State apparatus ready, deep and solid, rock solid unshakeable. Guo Jin min TUI is actually these special interest groups, and private capital back. Contemporary art in the new decade as the economy, "Guo Jin, min TUI," is the official mechanism, civil mechanisms, and similarly, this "country" does not mean that all national interests for all, but integrated mechanism within personnel privileges and official interest in private. Contemporary art values that strengthen the sense of nationalism, industry, direct participation or leadership of the Government-run agencies or Government departments and civil consciousness, degradation of personal values, as well as a few non-mainstream aesthetics and civil institutions are not authorized to or exit. This art of spirit consciousness of conversion, also continued in capital and institutional expansion of Double Fusion Xia, formed a contemporary art of "two sides" groups, that most of market capital, and public media and private and Government platform of resources to minority interests groups moved closer, to part art stars, and institutional vested interests who concentrated, constitute capital and power of together, manufacturing out across rivers, and media and official of communities, to reached capital and bureaucratic both of interests maximize. In essence, capital of industry orientation of discipline for the power of nationalism, capital is essentially the national industrial attachment, because the further expansion of space and capital, and that the State ideology and deregulation of the financial control. Nationalism and industrialism of the capital not only complementary to content, with each other and seek to maximize the benefits, the pioneers of contemporary art, noble in spirit, the artist's self-pursuit of art in such a great situation that becomes small and insignificant. New contemporary art, ten years later, independence of spirit is not primarily lie in pioneering form and internal advancement, but focuses on external capital, the media pack and legalization of Bo yi and official institutions, functioning, its social and public platforms to concerned primarily with the wealth of myths and marketing and 890 of the last century's avant-garde reputation as its business of packaging resources. Contemporary art should demonstrate the advancement of minorities and uphold the spirit of position should be pioneering in case no deposit, valuable new exploration spirit no longer appears, most people give up and turn to follow most of the same team. Contemporary art later in the new decade's prosperity is mainly reflected in the market and society on the reputation and practice the art and academic research, capitalization and legalization does not solve the deep problems of art education, not benefit the popularization of contemporary art. Young generation eager to become mainstream stars, rather than stick to the pioneer values of individual autonomy. Idealists attempted to change living conditions of contemporary art through institutional and capital ambition have failed, power and capital strength of the will as an avalanche, the process and no one can stop and change direction. This is the characteristics of the situation of Chinese contemporary art. As a United Front policy, official wise to put Shang century 80 generation participation had "trendy art" of famous critics and artist appointed some Government Gallery curator, and Academy of fine arts Dean and the international double years exhibition of National Museum strategy exhibition people, conscious to let contemporary art "legalized", contemporary artist into has Government officials, in Government gallery system within set up domestic double years exhibition, in art college promote Western Hou modern art of courses, and promote contemporary art representative government participate in national sexual of external art Exchange exhibition. This is not the Government's concessions to contemporary art, or institutional changes, but in fact inclusion and integration. Shanghai Biennale, founded Guangzhou triennial, Luo Zhongli as chuanmei Dean, President of the Institute of contemporary art, Xu Jiang as Zhejiang, President of the United States, Fan Dian, as the China Pavilion in Venice and many external exhibition curators in China Culture year, which to some extent promote the inclusive understanding of contemporary art and social communication of the Government's legitimacy. But this "legalized" process to new century ten years late has gradually produced problem, "legalized" is in Hou ideology framework within for of, this framework given contemporary art must meaning of than Shang century 890 generation Catholic of limits, but legalized always only is a half legalized or not full legalized, new ten years of culture pattern is a to national ideology led Xia inclusive market and civil form of "a Yuan Xia of diversity", new ten years of contemporary art legalized, main is lifted " Remains taboo in the industry but has no political taboo "entered the Museum in the form of Western avant-garde art, Academy of fine arts and national exhibitions, but only if a" harmless avant-garde can be controlled "whenever possible" hazardous uncontrollable "contemporary art such as occasional performance art, reflect the theme of forced demolitions social criticism of the arts, has not been able to" legalize ". New decade is still the main form of contemporary art Pope, idea international contemporary art and new media art, the popular language, therefore, Chinese contemporary art may be in the form of language that continues to follow the Western, also said that with the world. Under the capitalization of nationalism and a strong advance, concepts, values and public discourse on contemporary art and fashion, blurs the boundaries of official ideology. Contemporary art in the last century of the 890 non-mainstream positions and critical spirit have been cynical, variety of realistic and funny idea, collage, Pope and multimedia forms, becoming judge the identity of contemporary art. Second, few's aesthetic is replacement of the pioneers of contemporary art for a culture of most of the fashion industry, emerging sectors, the public, and the young artist as a symbol of fashion and marketing industries. Contemporary art values are interpreted as equivalent to the neo-Renaissance China National aesthetic production. Capitalization of nationalism and Chinese contemporary art in continuous production, Western and Asian economic crisis more expression of China's rise and its great, national experiences and collective consciousness. While contemporary art of national doctrine just stay in part capital, and culture scholars and officials on new national culture policy of advocates, but has has various national doctrine of creation practice and aesthetics instance, like Beijing Olympics, and Shanghai Expo of fireworks and whiff of, Super landscape performances, its aesthetics features performance for: giant no fighter of body volume, blanked bottom pain of Prime aesthetics, huge produced cost consumption, lack traditional connotation of China symbol, and on technology aesthetics of stressed. A most advanced of means political and capital double Board training of era, makes contemporary art and fashion culture, and art design and large party of choreography forms increasingly no difference, like some street advertising, and fashion products, and postcard, and fashion magazine, image design also are used has wave General art of practices, including films head, literary party, furniture, indoor design and architectural design also using has concept art of forms. Not only in contemporary culture has no distinction between art and fashion in the form of language, aesthetic differences don't even have fun seeing the image. Has always been is considered China pioneer art main area of contemporary art pioneer sexual do lost and is media and market Crown for pioneer, in in recent years constantly is public and media questioned for "Emperor of new clothing" of embarrassed situation, main is because Shang century 890 generation contemporary art on Western Hou modern forms of using has been keep with and public cognitive of time difference, Pope, and concept and multimedia in abroad has not pioneer, but introduced domestic is can because public of ignorance and is "pioneer". In the new decade, artists and critics, various art websites, public media journalists and national culture cadres, for the first time to observe international exhibition scene, so the difference largely disappeared, though, in fact remain dependent on the introduction of foreign language of contemporary art imitating transformation authoring mode, like many movie plots and techniques, always follow the West to achieve "pioneers".
Chinese art rarely seen in important galleries and museums in the world, because the Chinese lack of Chinese self-art pioneer of innovative contemporary art, art of noble spirit, outstanding artist's self-pursuit of the arts, and meet the unique height. Reality in the contemporary art of high-end groups, including stars artist, for of touted of QC critics, capital markets practitioners, Regal collectors, official culture officials, full reset contemporary art of pioneer sexual, spirit of noble sexual, General artist of art self pursuit sexual and civil culture calls and edge aesthetics despite, into in regime, capital interests group, commercial fashion, vulgar mass taste of huge Eddy in the. Chinese cultural, political and social factors led to this situation.
 
Yuan Chu Chen 为什么中国当代艺术难入世界级博物馆收藏

陈源初

《纽约时报》报道,中国很多艺术家和策展人认为,中国艺术很少出现在世界重要的画廊和博物馆收藏中。虽然中国的艺术藏家在世界重要的拍卖中取得不菲成绩,但与之相比,中国艺术依然处于缺席的局面。文化观察家们认为,各种政治和社会因素导致了这种情况,比如审查制度,受教育体制约束的创作力等等。

中 国官方因当代艺术不受其控制,同时不像官办协会画院学院派等御用艺术完全在其掌控之下为政权做宣传,而当代艺术往往讥讽时弊,所以官方一开始认为当代艺术 是对政权不利的对立面。后来由于当代艺术的大量的不可阻挡的发展趋势,如果一成不变用僵死的官方老政策的话,必定无法掌控艺术界的局面而对于政权的掌握产 生影响。官方当局从对当代艺术的否定,反对和压制,明智地逐渐转而日趋积极地对当代艺术开始支持与赞助。但这种“合法化”进程到新世纪十年后期已逐渐产生问题,合法化是在后意识形态框架内进行的,这个框架给予当代艺术一定意义的比上世纪八九十年代宽容的限度,但合法化始终只能是一种半合法化或不完全合法化,新十年的文化格局是一种以国家意识形态主导下包容市场和民间形态的“一元下的多样性”。新十年的当代艺术合法化,主要在于无害可控的前提下允许西方前卫艺术形式进入美术馆、美术学院和国家展览。凡是可能“有害不可控”的当代艺术比如反对官方政治制度、批评领袖高官、待有重要诊治符号、偶发性的行为艺术、反映强拆题材等等的社会批评的艺术,则始终未能“合法化”。 意识形态之间的摩擦仍然存在,如2008年8月李一凡的《淹没》在伊比利亚当代艺术中心被公安局强行禁映了在90年初期到中期,艺术家对意识形态的反映直接表现在画面上,并只能用调侃和嬉虐的姿态来表现意识形态的代表“毛符号”。 2009年2月5日11点在北京今日美术馆举行纪录片《七宗罪》首映式,为纪念1989年在北京中国美术馆举行的 “中国现代艺术大展”二十周年,该展览是中国当代艺术史上第一次,也是迄今为止唯一一次先锋艺术家在大规模在国家主流美术馆集体亮相。纪录片仅仅展示一批珍贵的史料性照片、录 像、装置艺术等,回顾当年温普林、肖鲁、李山、吴山专、张念、王德仁、朱雁光、任小颖,王浪和大同大张等艺术家引起爆炸性轰动效果的七个代表性行为艺术,——史称“七宗罪”。在展映前一小时,“有关部门”要求美术馆的影像进行检查,并在他们的监督下对有关段落进行“快进”处理之后随即禁映 了。影片播放仪器被清理,人群逐渐散去,原本拥挤的展厅空旷起来。门口放置的海报,也悄悄换了新的。人们默默离开,如同刚刚的一切没有发生过。这意味着强 加的意识形态并没有休息,当代艺术仍然面对着博弈,意识形态并没有赋予当代艺术以合法性,只是允许在有限方位内进行。当然,这种事件在当代艺术中发生的频 率比之以前要少,即使发生,它也不能构成像80和90年代初对艺术家和批评家那样的政治压力。

中国当代艺术与代表意识形态的美协已经是 两个平行的系统,他们之间各行其道,两者之间的对立关系已有微妙的潜移默化。中国的艺术家和批评家有足够的耐心和智慧在复杂的现实下,在不同的时期和不同 的语境下采取不同的方法处理不同的问题。另一方面,国家势在必然地将进一步地改革。现在体制内的人都已进入了“当代艺术”不 管他们的艺术与当代艺术风马牛毫不相及,当代艺术已成为一个冠冕堂皇的桂冠,谁都愿意套上。体制内的变革派和民营资本实际上都遭遇困境,体制内的艺术家看 到了体制外市场的诱惑,又不愿意放弃体制内的优势下野到非主流形态,在现有格局暂时难以改变的前提下,合法化的体制和资本积极地采取“强强联手”的 方式。资本利益集团也希望扩大有限资本的无限效应,最好的出路是让国家参与到当代艺术中来,和民营机构对官方体制的依附。当代艺术的国家主义化在新十年后 期不断强化,北京双年展虽然挂着国际双年展旗号,实际上采用的是在官方领导主持下集体评选的全国美展模式;上海双年展表面上采用了国际策展人制,但变成了 少数文化官僚轮流坐庄的“麻将 圈”;文化部成立了当代艺术展览奖励基金,但很多非当代艺术展览也进入获奖名单。这种“官民”混同的艺术现象在新十年后期愈加明显。自2000年上海双年展开始,中国官方的当代艺术展台开始搭建起来,成都双年展、广州当代艺术三年展等展览活动在推动中国当代艺术的力度上也紧随不让。民间对中国当代艺术的大规模赞助也拉开帷幕,如成都双年展便是依靠本地商人邓鸿赞助而得以成功举办。2002年中国美术馆馆长范迪安策划圣保罗双年展中国馆;2003年中国政府正式受邀以国家馆的名义参加威尼斯双年展,并正筹划建立永久的中国馆;2003年文化部以范迪安、侯瀚如、科嘉比为策展人,于德国柏林汉堡火车站当代美术馆举办“生活在此时”展览,这是中国官方第一次在海外主办大型当代艺术展。一系列的官方当代艺术展览在巴黎、克罗地亚等地随即展开,文化部也开始制度性受邀参加威尼斯等国际重要双年展。在美术馆方面, 随着范迪安主持中国美术馆,王璜生主持广东美术馆,李磊主持上海美术馆等中国最重要的国立美术馆,做了许多重要的工作,显示出一贯以来视当代艺术为祸害猛兽的官方对当代艺术的掌控与接收的力度正在加强,公立美术馆的学术性正在兴建,当代艺术的影响开始重新受到各界重视。2009年11月13日,一个隶属官方中国艺术研究院的“中国当代艺术院”在北京正式挂牌成立。该院第一任院长是曾经画出饱经风霜但遭到意识形态非议的《父亲》的画家罗中立。罗中立在成立仪式上宣誓当代艺术将以国家意识形态指导创作。第一批成员的名单是罗中立,徐冰,许江,周春芽,隋建国,韦尔申,蔡国强,王广义,汪建伟,张晓刚,叶永 青,王功新,林天苗,岳敏君,展望,方力钧,刘小东,曾梵志,冯梦波,宋冬,邱志杰。被事先安排前来参加成立典礼仪式并表达祝贺的人大多数是党和国家部门如中宣部、文化部、中国文联、美术家协会的高官。官方开始主动介入 中国当代艺术的发展,国家资源与当代艺术第一次有了结合,中国当代艺术也许将以主流方式受到推动,并建立起公开、持续和永久的交流平台。总之,中国当代艺 术院的成立被理解为一个曾经处于被指责的地下的当代艺术得以合法。尽管名单中不乏权力因素导致的结果,但是,曾被全国美术家协会代表大会工作报告指责了的 政治波普和玩世现实主义对中国形象的歪曲的艺术家们像张晓刚、王广义、方力钧、岳敏君这样的明星式当红艺术家不经正规程序的评选(如科学院士)就草率入 院,说明官方急切地要掌控当代艺术使之为政权服务。这并不等于官方在意识形态标准上的让步,而是表达了官方掌握形势的决心和迅速应变的能力。在那些歪曲中 国形象的艺术大腕们借当代艺术“合法化”之机会去获得政治名誉的同时,已经成为官方艺术机构的重要成员。毫 无疑问,这些院士们不可能再对官方体制或意识形态有任何实质性的重大的质疑更毋庸说叛逆了,这正是官方面对当代艺术这个具体而艰难的怪物想出的妥善应对方 法。至于手续的草率,程序的不合理,只说明了在严峻形势下官方的急切态度,和以往的各种紧急的突如其来的政治运动相比,这实在算不了什么。由“当代艺术院”成立而引发了一系列关于体制等问题等争论,譬如入选者承担当代艺术发展与研究的能力和作用,这批反体制“英雄”们究竟有什么学术思想,他们艺术创作水平究竟有没有艺术家应有的思想精神与人格灵魂等等。院士们既没有通过正式公开招聘也没有明确的入选标准更没有透明的评选过程,更不用说任何民意了,这也无伤大雅,反正官方机构的操作模式自开国以来一贯如此司空见惯。中国当代艺术院就像其他协会,院,所一样,并不代表绝大多数艺术家。这是毋庸置疑的。无论无何,用积极的观点来看,中国当代艺术院的成立不妨说是一件好事:当代艺术第一次被政府认 可。至少当代艺术在政府的掌控之下有可能会普及到整个社会,这对艺术家、策展人、博物馆,以及所有从事艺术的人是件好事。更进一步说,中央政府机构各省都 会实施分支机构,有关艺术方面的成就也会容易得到认可,方便扩大人们对当代艺术的兴趣,并给予当代艺术在不违反和触及官方和政权的基本利益前提下有更好的 呈现,所以当代艺术院的成立不得不说是官方精明政策的成功。表明中国政府并不是墨守成规的,在坚守原则的大前提下,政府在政策上善于灵活地变化,体制也会越来越松动。当代艺术是几代人追求的事业,不会满足于永远地被视为异端。由官方体制正式认可的当代艺术,总 算“历史使命”已经完成,何况入围者有画价会上升,作品会进入美院的教科书等等边际利益,至于他们的作品会不会有重大的艺术上的突破,这已无关紧要,他们 已功成利就名至所归。然而体制外的杰出艺术家会超越他们,这也是必然的态势。在二十一世纪的中国当代艺术开始登上国际舞台,中国艺术家进入国际展览体制的 同时,中国当代艺术碰到新形势是商业大潮的冲击和后殖民主义形式的形成。中国当代艺术完全是在西方成熟的体制内运作:“艺术家—画廊/策展人、评论家—媒体—拍卖行—收藏家—美术馆。当代艺术艺术界的现实是离不开商业利益集团,艺术家要面对的已不单艺术品的水准的问题,更重要的是市场的操作,是如何进入既有的国际国内艺术规则与国家的体制和主流的大潮内,其中关系非常复杂,必须顾及各方利益共谋关系。

我们意识到西方化与本土化 关系着历史主体的确认,西方史学家和思想家的开创性自我批判和反思,为我们中国学者评价和叙述中国自己的历史提供了一个开阔和辨证的视野,使我们容易地看 到现代化、本土化这些问题的语境和角度,同时,也让我们看到在国家民族内部也同样存在着历史叙事主体的确认。我们称之为"形式主义"的西方现代艺术在视觉形式方面的不断革命和批判动力主要来自它的审美现代性的观念,而且大多数现代主义流派的抽象表现和几何形式看上去似乎和现实没有任何关系,和政治更没有关系。但是,西方的"形式主义"者 都宣称他们的艺术除个性外也具有社会精神性。中国艺术形式的现代化与一百年来中国的内外部现实的变化有关,最近三十年中国当代艺术的历史叙事,更与最近三 十年中国社会的政治、经济和文化发展有关。在对整个二十世纪的各种流行现实主义形式分析后发现,所有这些现实主义艺术都摆脱不了实用性和功利性,主要是屈 服于体制与市场权势趋和苟同于大众的通俗性。成功的流派最终总是走向保守、僵化,这在西方艺术史和中国艺术历史中都是规律。中国二十世纪的所有现实主义形 式最终也是走向保守,走向了利欲,权势和媚俗,其原因即在于它们在初始就没有真正建立起自己的理想信念,大多数从实用和功利出发,不能超越现实去观照现实 的本质,而屈服于现实的庸俗接受方式和庸俗的受众水平。不是没有政治观念,也不是没有再现现实的冲动。而是用虚假的,媚俗的现实主义去取悦于庸俗大众和资 本市场。这样的现实主义不是高尚艺术家和精英文化的代表,相反,是知识分子对大众庸俗趣味的屈服和迁就,也就是心态的媚俗造成了艺术媚俗。艺术品的意义既 不是由所谓的社会"内容",也不是由"风格"所决定的。艺术品的意义在于艺术家的观察现实和理解现实的态度和所注入的艺术因素。中国人多年来对"形式主义"的误读和偏见是,形式主义不关注现实。其实不然,用超越了视觉现实的、审美独立的艺术方式去隐喻地虚拟现实,其核心是对现实主义的"视觉真实"的超越,对低级庸俗现实的超越。

中国政府是一个富有政治经验百折不饶的政府。在经过各种天灾人祸的洗礼后更加成熟。在社会经济领域内,吃了社会主义计划经济的大亏之后,改革开放引进资本主义市场经济让民众看到曙光,民营资本的大规模发展让国营企业相信见拙。然而近年来出现的“国进民退”及“通吃”现 象又给经济界造成了迷惑,这里的“国”并不是真正国家进入,而是国有化体制机构的进入。国有化机构并不等同于全民拥有全民受益,它们只是国有编制,享有各 种特权,譬如石油,烟草,银行,保险,有些行业非但民间不准经营,政府中也只准指定机构专营。而在其中的当权者是既得利益者,只要上交了一定的利润,余下 的自我支配权很大,上下官员工资高。这实际上是不公平的机制,这些官办机构的盈利是特权所致,应属全民所有,并不是工作人员的特殊功劳,但广大民众是无权 过问的。所以这国有企业的“国”是与真正国家的“国”是有区别的,只是少数人利用国家的优势谋取自己和小集团的利益。这种格局已在国家机器中各方权力分配 停当,深厚而牢固,坚如磐石不可动摇。所以国进民退实际上是这些特殊利益集团进,民间资本退。当代艺术在新十年亦如经济界一样, “国进民退”表 现为官方机制进,民间机制退,同样道理,这里的“国”并不等于全民所有的国家利益,而是机制内人员私下特权和官方利益的综合。表现在当代艺术的国家主义意 识、产业价值观的强化,官办机构或政府部门的直接参与或领导,同时民间意识、个人价值观以及少数人非主流美学的退化,及民间机构的无权或退出。这种艺术的 精神意识的转换,还持续在资本和体制扩张的双重融合下,形成一个当代艺术的“通吃”群 体,即绝大部分的市场资本、公共媒体以及民营和政府平台的资源向少数权益群体靠拢,向一部分艺术明星、体制既得利益者集中,构成资本和权力的联手,制造出 横跨江湖、媒体和官方的族群,从而达到资本和官僚双方的利益最大化。在本质上,资本的产业主义取向亦为国家主义权力所规训,资本实质上是对国家主义进行产 业依附,因为进一步的空间和资本扩张,都有赖于国家意识形态和金融管制的松绑。 国 家主义和资本的产业主义不仅互为内涵,而且相互借助对方寻求利益最大化,当代艺术的先锋性,精神的高尚性,广大艺术家的艺术自我追求在这种宏大的形势下变 得渺小而微不足道。新十年后期的中国当代艺术,主要不是在于先锋形式和精神独立性的内部推进,而是侧重于外在的资本、媒体包装以及与官方体制的搏弈合法化 运作,其在社会和公共平台上获得的关注主要在于财富神话和市场营销上,以及将上世纪八九十年代的前卫名声作为自身商业包装的资源。当代艺术应表现出少数人 的推进和坚守精神立场应有的先锋性已倘然无存,有价值的精神的新探索不再出现,多数人放弃而转向跟随社会多数人一样进退。当代艺术在新十年后期的繁荣主要 体现在市场和社会名声上而不在艺术实践上和学术研究上,资本化与合法化并不解决艺术教育的深层问题,也未能惠及当代艺术的普及化。年轻一代渴望成为主流明 星,而非坚守个人自主的先锋价值。理想主义者企图通过体制和资本改变当代艺术生存状态 的奢望已经落空,权力和资本意志的实力如排山倒海一般,进程及方向无人能阻挡和改变。这是中国当代艺术所处的境况特征。作为一种统战策略,官方英明地把上世纪80年代参与过“新潮艺术”的著名批评家和艺术家委任一些政府美术馆馆长、美院院长及国际双年展的国家馆策展人,有意识地让当代艺术“合法化”, 当代艺术家成了政府官员,在政府美术馆系统内兴办国内双年展,在美术院校推动西方后现代艺术的课程,并推动当代艺术代表政府参加国家性的对外艺术交流展。 这并不是政府的退让给当代艺术或体制的变革,而实际上是包容和收编。比如上海双年展、广州三年展的创办,罗中立出任川美院长、当代艺术院院长、许江出任浙 美院长,范迪安等出任威尼斯中国国家馆及诸多中国文化年对外展览策展人,这在一定程度上推进了政府对当代艺术的包容理解及其社会传播的合法性。但这种“合法化”进程到新世纪十年后期已逐渐产生问题,“合法化”是在后意识形态框架内进行的, 这个框架给予当代艺术一定意义的比上世纪八九十年代宽容的限度,但合法化始终只能是一种半合法化或不完全合法化,新十年的文化格局是一种以国家意识形态主导下包容市场和民间形态的“一元下的多样性”,新十年的当代艺术合法化,主要在于解除“遗存的行业禁忌但已无政治禁忌”的西方前卫艺术形式进入美术馆、美术学院和国家展览,但其前提必须是一种“无害可控的前卫”,凡是可能“有害不可控”的当代艺术比如偶发性的行为艺术、反映强拆题材的社会批评的艺术,则始终未能“合法化”。 新十年当代艺术的主要形式仍然是波普、观念和新媒体艺术等国际当代艺术流行的语言,因此,在语言形式上中国当代艺术业既可说仍然跟风西方,也可说已与国际 接轨。在国家主义化和资本化的强势推进下,当代艺术在概念、价值观及公共话语上与时尚、官方意识形态的界限变得模糊。当代艺术在上世纪八九十年代的非主流 立场和批判精神已被媚俗,变种的写实和搞怪的波普、拼贴、观念和多媒体形式,成为判断当代艺术的标识。其次,当代艺术先锋性的少数美学被置换为一种多数人 时尚的文化产业主义,新兴阶层、公众及年轻艺术家将其看作一种时尚及营销工业的符号生产。当代艺术的价值观被解释为一种等同于新国家美学生产的中华复兴主 义。中国的当代艺术国家主义化和资本化在不断生产,由于西方和亚洲的经济危机更表达中国的崛起和党的伟大,国家经验和集体意识。虽然当代艺术的国家主义只 是停留在一部分资本、文化学者和官员对新国家文化策略的提倡,但已有各种国家主义的创作实践和美学实例,比如北京奥运会、上海世博会的焰火和团体操等超级 景观表演,其美学特征表现为:巨无霸的体量,遮蔽底层痛苦的盛世美学,巨额制作成本消耗,缺乏传统内涵的中华符号,以及对技术美学的强调。一个最先进的手 段政治和资本双重规训的时代,使得当代艺术与时尚文化、艺术设计和大型晚会的舞美形式越来越没有区别,比如一些街头 广 告、时尚产品、明信片、时尚杂志等图像设计也都采用了波普艺术的手法,包括电影片头,文艺晚会,家具,室内设计和建筑设计也使用了观念艺术的形式。不仅在 语言形式上当代艺术与时尚文化已没有区别,甚至连图像趣味也看不出美学差异。一向被视为中国先锋艺术主要领域的当代艺术先锋性尽失却又被媒体和市场冠为先 锋,在近些年不断被公众和媒体质疑为“皇帝的新衣”的尴尬境况,主要是因为上世纪八九十年代当代艺术对西方后现代形式的使用一直保持着和公众认知的时间差,波普、观念和多媒体在国外已不是先锋,但引进国内尚能因为公众的无知而显得“先锋”。 在新十年,艺术家和批评家们,各种艺术网站、公共媒体的记者们以及国家文化干部,在第一时间奔赴国际大展现场观摩,所以时间差基本上消失,尽管如此,当代艺术事实上仍然靠引进国外语言进行模仿改造创作模式,就像很多电影的情节和技巧一样,始终跟风西方来达到 “先锋性”。

之所以中国艺术很少出现在世界重要的画廊和博物馆收藏中,是因为中国的艺术缺乏中国特有的自我创新的当代艺术的先锋性,艺术精神的高尚性,杰出艺术家的艺术自我追求性以及达到的独特高度。现实中当代艺术的高端群体,包括明星艺术家,为之吹捧的御用批评家,资本市场从业者,富豪收藏家,官方文化官员,完全置当代艺术的先锋性,精神的高尚性,广大艺术 家的艺术自我追求性和民间文化呼声以及边缘美学不顾,陷入在政权,资本利益集团,商业时尚,庸俗大众口味的巨大漩涡中。中国的人文,政治和社会因素导致了这种情况。
Posted by Yuan Chu Chen on 5/1/13







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