The development of China's gallery industry in general has experienced the following stages: one is the traditional "HuaDian" in the form of art sales, on the development scale and development speed is restricted by a lot; Second, in the 1980 s, in view of the public art gallery of consumers, HuaDian quantity increased obviously, and for foreign art gallery of consumers, HuaDian because attached to the strong development of Chinese tourism industry, also got a certain development; Third, in the 1990 s, China's professional gallery pioneer days, gradually get rid of the traditional "HuaDian" or some gallery was established "fine art shop" mode, into a contemporary management model; Four is 2000 years later, the gallery experience, many entrepreneurs were knocked out early, more and more professional gallery increase at the same time, and some into "profit era", combined with China's Taiwan region, South Korea, Europe and the United States also gradually into the gallery, the gallery management art style, positioning and the background of operators, operating methods, pr strategy, entered the era of diversification; Five is the Chinese art market adjusted in 2006, the gallery into the scale growth. According to incomplete statistics, 2006 years later, the number of gallery was established in Beijing is more than 50% of the total number of existing gallery in Beijing, and in 2007, dozens of foreign gallery (or a foreign background) in Beijing. In the first half of 2007, the number of galleries in China reached a new peak, to more than thirteen thousand eight hundred. It is not hard to see from the above gallery industry development, China gallery industry through two large scale stage of development: one is the mid - 1990 - s; The second is 2005 ~ 2006. The ups and downs of the gallery, generally can be divided into the main gallery, the main gallery and three online gallery. In the process of the development of Chinese art market, the different forms of the gallery is in the complex market ecology. The main gallery, i.e., according to the art of business exhibition, display, and other activities for business in the form of a gallery, its operation pattern mainly divided into four kinds: the first is a proxy operation mode; The second is the gallery + painter mode; The third is the gallery + work mode; The fourth is gallery + activity pattern. The white paper on China's art market lead west mu researcher, said: although the main sexual gallery is gallery formats form the mainstream of development, but in operation and management of professional and long-term return forms of law faces a higher threshold for it development and more uncertainty, level, the prestige is uneven also, causing closed. According to incomplete statistics gallery alliance market research center in China: as of June 2008, the mainland's main gallery, 3549, accounting for 28.9% of the total to the gallery, while the data at the end of 2009 to 2386, account for only 27.3% of the total number of gallery. Non main gallery, namely thought art trade and activities to provide support services to give priority to, in the form of art trade and related activities of formats. As the market is still in development, non main gallery or gallery industry a large amount, complicated and level is not in the existence of the state.
As the financial information to accelerate the pace of development, the emergence of the online gallery and continuous development for the development of the gallery industry opens up new channel development, online gallery is based on Internet communication and build online business space, art is a form of online marketing. Has created a new Chinese art market. No doubt, the specialized direction of mixed management in gallery industry with China for a long period of time will continue to exist, and will be intensified due to the impact of the global economic trend. West mu said: "China, of course, the size of the gallery industry structure in different regional distribution will have different performance: in the art market relatively developed areas, the gallery of specialization degree is higher, and the less developed area in the art market, the status of the mixed management will become more common. In many cases, the development of regional economic development level and art are not synchronized, this is also our in the process of the research of the Chinese art market should pay close attention to and attention." White paper according to the Chinese art market analysis: in 2008, China's gallery industry clinch a deal amount is about seven billion yuan, including the main gallery, the main gallery and online gallery of turnover compared with 2007 yuan of 2007 turnover decline is larger, especially the influence of the main gallery are the most great. While the data at the end of 2009 to: China gallery industry clinch a deal the total scale of 6.555 billion RMB, including the main gallery of the turnover of RMB 1.98 billion, non main gallery turnover of 4.254 billion yuan, the online gallery of turnover is RMB 321 million. Focusing on economic development level, of course, at the same time, the development of art gallery industry practitioners quality also nots allow to ignore. According to statistics: China gallery "at the end of 2008, China's gallery industry practitioners of about eighteen thousand two hundred people, compared with 2007 at the end of 2007, 07700 fewer americans, 29.7% decline. In practitioners, college degree or above accounted for only 29% of the total, received special education and related skills training of less than 9% of the total. While the data at the end of 2009 to: China gallery industry practitioners of about 16500 people, compared with a year earlier, fell by 01700, the decline was 9.34%; And practitioners is to a significant degree, college degree or above personnel account for 43% of the total, but the received special education and related skills training is less, only 12%.
China gallery industry not only carrying the hope of the development of Chinese art market, more important is decides the present and the future of Chinese art market. , however, is the important main body form of the Chinese art market, but at the end of 2009 since the suffering in the severe market environment, from June 2008, twelve thousand to 2009 at the end of eight thousand seven hundred, and the gallery decline situation continued until now. Although there are ice disaster in early 2008, the year the earthquake, the end of the year came on the heels of the financial tsunami, but so far, 2008 is not the worst of time, in 2009, is the most difficult one gallery industry in China. According to the centre for the study of statistical analysis of marketing: the China art gallery gallery in mainland China's regional distribution is very uneven, and largely concentrated in Beijing, henan, shandong, zhejiang, guangdong, gansu and other six provinces, and six provinces and cities of the gallery's gallery in 2008 accounted for more than half of the total, by early 2009, this figure increases to 55%, and most of the distribution in the provincial capital city and part of the prefecture-level cities - there are exceptions, such as shandong qingzhou, gansu tong nutrient-laden county metropolitan area, is focused more than hundreds of large and small gallery, in 2009, however, these places gallery survival situation is extremely difficult, reduce profits, mixed management increases; In xinjiang, Tibet, qinghai, such as the center of the city, the gallery scarcity situation no big difference. In 2009, guangdong, Shanghai, Beijing and other cities while also does not appear large gallery "fail" phenomenon, but the gallery of mostly reduced by as much as six or seven into business situation is very difficult. Some famous gallery in 2004 ~ 2005, the market good, almost month has exhibition, academic lectures, occasionally also do activities arrangement is very compact, but in the past 2009 years, many of these gallery gallery are not even held exhibitions or activities, the low cost of operation, in order to survival.
Chinese art criticism, because of the lack of a stable criticism system support, make it in an unstable state, the critics can't get from the art system and guarantee stable economic income, and therefore had to write an artist flatter praise or article is to get economic support, of course, the artist also need critics famous for its high value, and through the critics to improve their academic status, and its market position through academic status. But if so, critics will lose its criticism of the academic independence, critics became a parasitize essentially parasitic class artist, the embarrassment of their identity and status, determines the independence of the criticism is hard to hold. Critics, however, this is not an individual problem, criticism lies in the system is not sound. This, however, and those who have independent criticism spirit of critics are very different things, to do their thing, has nothing to do. Independent critics, of course, it also can give a person to write review articles. Art criticism is the key to the real academic build institutionalized survival rules, which determine the ecology of the industry. Foundation system is a possible way, but whether the growth of the Chinese art important future path? A foundation is not equal to have the good ecological criticism, China does not lack of art foundation, in what the nature of the foundation. Many of China's foundation, mostly do not have independence, a lot of culture and art foundation, depends on the official or official body. , of course, this is due to the unique system of administrative examination and approval system and corporate management, in accordance with China's current administrative examination and approval and community management system, those who don't have profit nature of civil society, must be registered to civil administration branch, and must be attached to the administrative department in charge of the related by its jurisdiction, if not, you must with nonprofit company or enterprise registration, and registered company, and must go to the department of industry and commerce registration, as a result, each month have to pay enterprise income tax in time.
China's art foundation, survival among cracks in the civil affairs department and the ministry of commerce and industry, it is difficult to have independent operation mechanism, it is hard to not subject to the administrative department of the administrative jurisdiction. In this way, it is difficult to make art foundation and art criticism has academic independence. So there still is to reform the existing system of administrative examination and approval and community management system. The Chinese art market, essentially formed a chain of interdependence and parasitic, the artist is producers, but the artist is parasitic on art dealer or entrepreneur's a parasitic groups, and art critic in the artist's a parasitic group, artists and critics, this economic dependence makes it lost the academic and artistic independence to some extent, therefore, to obtain the independence of the artistic creation and criticism, only get rid of this kind of economic dependence, only economic independence, to the spirit of independence. And to get this kind of economic independence, only to get rid of the existing by entrepreneurs or art dealer directly packaging system, rely on independent foundation of reward or funding. Because the foundation is public, has no profit nature, are not directly involved in the art market. That pure to cater to the market and, therefore, the creator, is less likely to obtain foundation, only have the independent art and academic value of artists and critics, to obtain foundation of sponsorship. So, it is cut off direct interest relationship with artists, critics and the capital market, also cut off the direct interest relationship between critics and artists, critics don't have to survive by simply to artists for royalties, don't charge for the home of remuneration and said some words against his will himself. Critics of modern independent, without the system of attachment, it can only rely on the market for a living. But the problem is the key, critics to what is life? Who to fund critics? The who critics to pay remuneration? By rights, pay remuneration should be published publications or publication, however, now most of the Chinese calligraphy, fine arts kind of academic journals, self-financing, the pinch, mostly by selling layout to facilitate the life, which has the ability to pay critics remuneration? Instead, even a lot of academic journals published academic papers, not only to the remuneration, but also to collect a large number of pages, in the thirties of the last century is unthinkable.
20 or 30 s, such as lu xun, hu shi, liang qichao's literary world, most live on the newspaper remuneration. Liang qichao was The Times newspaper Shanghai political lead, and The Times newspaper higher remuneration payment to beam. Liang qichao such big pen as support, makes The Times newspaper also once in Shanghai in good newspaper. And why is there such a situation? Mainly lies in the fact that the time of the famous scholars and political essayist, wrote newspaper articles on politics, it can get a rich reward and superior living conditions, so that between them and newspaper also can form a long-term, stable relations of cooperation, which can ensure the quality of the newspaper. This is the current formed the huge contrast. In today's ills of publishing system and remuneration system condition, the critics want to rely on publications to pay the remuneration of survival, the basic is unsustainable and even food and clothing problems difficult to solve. Therefore, today's critics criticized and survival difficult, of course not only is the problem of painting industry, but decided by many factors. In today's academic, commercial art publications, utilitarian, press and publication system under the condition of marketization, most academic art publications have no funding, completely self-financing, in this way, publications can only rely on space charge to survive, of course, also is unable to pay or pay less the authors wrote. This is the systematic problems faced by the press and publication, calligraphy, fine arts craft. Since can't issued by the publication of the payment, so live on what?
If let criticism have independent academic value, critics must be independent source of financial and economic support, and today's critics, critics by artists to provide remuneration, if we do not cater to the artist, is unlikely to gain favor, and only this way has become a modern art comments or criticism of a helpless, however the also not bad. But if so, will have to say BiaoYangHua by human factors. This is one of them. Second, there is also a crucial problem, most artists live today still is more difficult, only a handful of title larger home economic conditions is good, so, in most of the artists live more difficult cases, critics remuneration is paid by artists are difficult and embarrassing. When artists and critics independent source of financial and economic support, just may have independent art and academic value. So, it is cut off direct interest relationship with artists, critics and the capital market, also cut off the direct interest relationship between critics and artists, critics don't have to survive by simply to artists for royalties, don't charge for the artist's remuneration and said some words against his will himself.
The white paper on China's art market data show that by the end of December 2008, compared with a year earlier, China gallery quantity reduced by about 29%, losses and narrowly in the maintaining and half closed state accounts for about 35% in the overall population of gallery, gallery and is profitable gallery represent only about 7% in the overall population of the gallery. Considering the factors such as natural growth, in 2008, a year off gallery has more than 30% of the total number of early to the gallery. While the data at the end of 2009 to: compared with a year earlier, China art gallery number fell by almost seven percent, losses and narrowly in the maintaining and half closed state accounts for about 45% in the overall population of gallery, gallery and is profitable gallery account for only 3.5%. Considering the factors such as natural growth, in 2009, a year off to more than 7% of the total number of early to the gallery gallery.
According to related statistics: Hong Kong gallery industry is also a hit in 2009, has closed a part, is struggling to continue to operate at present are mostly some old gallery with a long history. In the process of data processing, there is a phenomenon of the most worthy of our attention, that is the main gallery of losses and close the number accounts for 32% of total losses, closing gallery, but accounts for nearly half of its total ownership; Rather than the main gallery of the loss, the number of closed accounts for nearly 70% of the total losses, closing gallery, but account for only about 35% of its total ownership. Online gallery performance stable and increased slightly, no big changes. In 2009, online gallery to rise faster, increase of almost 6%. The trend of the other changes to maintain the previous year. Should be cause for concern is that foreign famous gallery into the gallery industry is in constant push China concept and management standardization process, for the development of China's art market has opened a window of available for study and reference. At the same time, domestic galleries and artists exchange and communication with the international art market will further expand the development of the Chinese art market vision, lay the foundation for the standardization of the domestic art market development.
Gallery is a basic link of art into the art market circulation, it is a important link connecting art production and consumption. The gallery as the key part of the primary market, directly affect the development of the secondary market and the whole art market. Gallery industry in China's cultural industry has formed a certain scale of industry, but the development is not standard, outdated management mode, lack of agent system, the secondary market, the lack of good faith, such as most of the gallery survival difficult that closed in, can last operator is few and far between. Gallery is an important part of the art market, as well as standardization of the art market in the primary market. For Chinese art market is still in the stage of development, the gallery industry development is not ideal. Gallery faced many problems in management at present: the mixed state of camp, agency can't popularity of old and new gallery, comprehensive intervention on the primary market and a secondary market gallery keen to participate in the international art exposition of move and so on, all reflect the current dilemma of the development of the gallery industry in China.
Art fair for collectors and the audience to bring convenience, allowing them to investigation, search, and purchase art in the same place. Going to art fair as in shopping center, collectors into art consumer goods. Famous art evaluation of VIP, sauter has once said: Beijing international art exposition "art fair is an adrenaline outbreak of buying and selling. Here, the illicit close sex, faith, patience, focus, ornamental opportunities (not to mention a chance to see a second) basically does not exist." An endless stream of people brought a good deal, some gallery exhibits even before the Open Day to sold out. Art fair number blowout. First Shanghai art image exhibition, the first urban theme event, the first in the west bank of art and design exhibition, the 2nd Shanghai jc contemporary art fair, the 18th annual Shanghai art fair, etc., the waves exhibition for collectors and the audience. And so many fair held is closely related to the gallery of group participation. Established art fair "the 18th annual Shanghai art fair" collected from China, Spain, Germany, France, the United States and other 12 countries 148 galleries; The rookie "art city" also attracted the participation of 15 galleries: Shanghai galleries lario, rui li gallery, Shanghai gallery, M art space, shanghart gallery, etc. In recent years, the international art exposition gradually gain the favor of gallery. For general gallery, usually within a year to do at least five or six exhibition, although put a lot of work, use for a long time, also find some is very important in domestic and even international artists to do exhibition, but people come to visit the gallery or too little. Opposite art fair has maintained a relatively active state, for the works on display and sales has set up a platform for the shortcut. Fair consumption culture is a unique art, can gather the dispersed gallery, to achieve resource sharing.
But generally fair trading are rarely live trading, joined a lot of exposition, rui li gallery Lord Liu Shijie said they rarely art transaction, the scene of the expo "unless you go to Hong Kong art fair, because the gallery is a foreign, not live to buy, after they went away." Of course, gallery main consideration is not only the objective performance. In order to make the important role of collectors think gallery, is necessary to attend the fair. In addition, some artists represented by the gallery also hope oneself can work on the international art exposition "appearance", main gallery must meet their needs. The development of the art world, especially in recent years, are usually based on event as a driving force, if not to participate in the expo such big events, the gallery is hard to left deep impression in the mind of the public. For art dealer, however, take part in the fair is not a easy thing, it also means that the "time" and "burn money". To participate in a fair, dealers often will begin in a few months in advance to prepare, they want to make plan, budget, collect items, contact collectors, including dealing with traffic and other trivial events. In addition, the gallery exhibition booth price is high, center on loan, management costs can be up to six figures, so the sales pressure is also huge. With the rapid increase of number of art fair, for the gallery, how to balance has become very difficult. Take part in all the important art fair restrictive, they don't have too much financial and material resources to participate in so many fair, art dealers was forced to make a more balance and give up. And a fair bring revenue could be used to support the next, if an exposition of the effect not beautiful, or a deal failed to reach a the gallery could be devastating.
Gallery is an important part of the art market main body, and standardization of the art market in the primary market. However, in the Chinese art market in a long history.its, but there was a market, galleries and abnormal status of the secondary market, the auction house upside down, is replaced by the auction house gallery of some important functions. As is known to all, 2009 was a painting and calligraphy art auction market in China to create for a year: one hundred million yuan sale to 4 piece piece, and a lot of items are frequently take a high price, this makes the pat on field can hardly see the shadow of the financial crisis cold snap. Several joy several sorrow. Compared with the auction house hot, is also engaged in art gallery, its operating conditions is difficult, difficult to adequately: generates fell sharply, not closed, then someone called 2009 gallery industry the most difficult one year. Published by the ministry of culture cultural market development center of Chinese art market participants pointed out that many galleries in the heavy cost pressure was forced to shut down or turned; Gallery industry in China in the line between the painful struggle. To explore the new gallery industry before, we first sequence of its history. Chinese art market has experienced a public-private partnership in the 1950 s and after the "cultural revolution", entered the cold quiet period of profound atrophy. In a very long period of time, up to four items to mix camp together a: rongbaozhai, DuoYunXuan scarcity of state-run shops, and is responsible for the collection of cultural relics and cultural relics of the export of state-owned cultural relics shops. Collection of cultural relics and art fixed-point business, since ancient times follow narrowly breath other delay. In the 80 s, with the rapid development of domestic tourism, large and medium-sized cities throughout the country, especially in the coastal open and tourist city, a business commodity painting and decoration of small and medium-sized gallery. In the 1990 s, the Chinese art market has entered a full recovery. In 1991, Wallace brown from Australia has opened Beijing red gate gallery - the first gallery in the modern sense. At present, the gallery industry has been developing rapidly worldwide, to become the primary market of the actuality in the art market, and through the public is the effective interaction system, private collection system, construct the sharing mechanism, promote the interactive equilibrium by different interest groups. Gallery industry to gain great development, further improve the cultural management system, establish and improve the modern cultural market system is very important. In general, with the development of the society, the art market division of labor has also been gradually thinning. The artist's main responsibility is to create more valuable works; The auction house's duty is to assist the buyer and the seller to complete the secondary market works; The gallery besides to discover potential artists, more important is to promote and agent, provide the market with real valuable works of art. And, more importantly, the gallery should through the way of signing agent, price control effect of artists, promote the healthy development of the future market, as well as the whole art market healthy and orderly play a leading role.
China's gallery industry management mode with the west gallery is very different. In the founding of the people for a long time, there is no western sense "gallery", only being mixed with four supplies run a: rongbaozhai, DuoYunXuan scarcity of state-run HuaDian, and is responsible for the collection of cultural relics and cultural relics of the export of state-owned cultural relics shops. As I know, until now gallery in most parts of the country has yet to get rid of the traditional HuaDian business model or the nature of the tourism "fine art shop" mode, especially in some inland areas where economy is not developed, basically does not exist in the modern sense gallery. These "HuaDian" type gallery is mainly engaged in some art already has some famous artists, especially within the system young and middle-aged painter's art. From the point of art market environment, in the future for a long time, the traditional gallery will abound, and management level is uneven.
In China, the western sense of professional gallery more concentrated in the economically developed areas of China, especially the central cities such as Beijing and Shanghai culture. Around 2000, Europe and the United States, Japan and South Korea and other foreign influx gallery. The Swiss Lawrence was founded in 1996 in Shanghai shanghart gallery; Tian Tian luckily people in 2002 in Beijing 798 art zone established the experiment project in Tokyo gallery; In 2008, stationed in Beijing 798 art zone pace... They mainly adopt the management mode of the west gallery, namely in art management, display, and other forms of activities for the business, widely introduced agent signing artists management system. Such a system, it is greatly changed in the past, the introduction of domestic traditional gallery completely rely on the artist has reputation of "sales", thus promote the based on the value judgment for the artist in the future of the development of the decision model. At the same time, they are more concerned about Chinese contemporary art, the continuous promotion of Chinese contemporary art. West, vice President of the China academy of art market mu said: "although this gallery is the gallery formats form the mainstream of development, but in operation and management of professional and long-term return forms of law faces a higher threshold for it development and more uncertainty, gallery management level, the prestige is uneven also, causing closed." A few years ago south Korean gallery integrity from China can't say is not affected by the above factors.
In recent years, with the advent of electricity is changed, the gallery also began to develop a new business model. More and more gallery business on the Internet. The emergence of the online gallery and continuous development for the development of the gallery industry opens up new channel development, also has created a new growth point for Chinese art market. Especially some local gallery, network across regional earned them a new customers all over the country. I used to visit some places small gallery, some gallery online even accounted for thirty percent of their overall sales even more. Their orders from all over the country, both the Beijing and tianjin tang, Yangtze river delta, shandong and other art industry prosperous regions, there are some remote areas in the Midwest. "In the traditional sense of the DengKeShangMen is not suitable for network is certainly art important sales channels in the future." Nanjing rain, Mr Hall boss JiPing said. There is no doubt that China gallery industry specialization development direction in the future and currently existing in a lot of mixed management in the future will continue to exist for a long time, electricity the era of online gallery and bring new ideas for the gallery industry development.
Exists in the present Chinese art market this strange phenomenon: the gallery is not a leader of the market, the artist is the arbiters of art prices. In China, many artists have in their selling work, especially those who already have some famous artists, and in foreign countries, artists can't sell. Hot and let the market at present the phenomenon is more serious. If collectors and art dealer, at the same price from the artist's hand, then, for the gallery, they are difficult to use normal market price to sell the artist's work, or it is hard to raise their prices. At the same time, quite a number of artists unwilling to sign death with gallery, feel do not need art dealer agent, agent, etc. So for some traditional gallery, almost not selling artist's work in the form of an agent. The painter to sell his works, this leads to the gallery artist couldn't go to the agent. Dislocation of the artist and the gallery, severe imbalances make trading order, will affect the healthy development of the art market intermediaries gallery. Gallery agency system is not, of course, does not exist. Especially for some just graduated young artist, want to enter the market, famous gallery is they want to fight for the object. Young artist to a gallery, the the value of the art gallery's reputation and its agent improved the quality of the other artists. Agency system can bring many benefits for them: the gallery can provide their works with relatively stable display, at the same time can also provide market feedback on their creation and exhibition and academia. In general, the artists have to wait until after several solo exhibition, gets enough attention of the industry, thus to develop a relatively stable solo exhibition plans to build the artist position is very good. In addition, a formal mature often provide artist works photography gallery, mounts, packing, transportation and storage services. A good agency relationship that artists can will more focus on the creation. In a word, the gallery is propitious to promote the artist agency system long-term stability of the career planning and the present continuous and academic logic and public image. Unless, of course, many galleries agent has admitted that the artist has a certain market foundation, otherwise the agent completely unknown young artists is very risky. The gallery owner said in Beijing looking for an artist is not easy: "when acting artist, the artist used to work, now work, and even after work, what is the development and changes, and how to plan, all want to know very well." For young artists often take years to cultivate a solid market, but too long also means many more variables, because the gallery is also unable to determine whether "JiaYiChang for others". Which formed an embarrassing situation: if compare gallery to a "fortress besieged", so has certain market foundation wants to come out from the "siege" of artists, while those not famous artists want to get in.
Galleries and auction houses: boundary disappear primary and secondary market, the auction house also in recent years, with its powerful resources and operation ability, set up some comprehensive sales platform, they want to in the field of art market retail pie. Some auction houses not only increase the private bidding for business, and have set up online trading platform, such as online, art standard Chinese. The traditional function of platform contains first may be the gallery, over the course of this trend, the gallery has been the risk of further marginalized, gallery industry situation is very awkward. From collection of Chinese painting and calligraphy and contemporary works to allow gallery Zhang Mingfang, review the gallery open nearly eight years of experience, lamented the art market environment changed completely: contemporary art market from cold to hot, art auction and trading prices soared, the artists and galleries, auction houses and galleries, art gallery and galleries of vicious competition. Under the stimulus distort prices, insiders have become very greedy, the market order is damaged. He stressed that compared with the works by masters in international contemporary art, Chinese contemporary art work may be tens of millions of yuan auction record is not high, but the high price of artwork clinch a deal, need a complete industrial chain, to support, needs a high income and the reasonable distribution of the profits in the industry, the need to form a complete set of hardware and software, need good industrial environment. He thinks that China lacks the industrial chain and the market atmosphere, so the contemporary art prices shot up in recent years, distorts the relationship between supply and demand, market would be destroyed. He believes that in the 21st century, Chinese contemporary art is one of the few Chinese of competing with others in the field, he called for the social from all walks of life and the government attaches importance to the construction of the contemporary art market. The opening of the exhibition gallery is also the group exhibitions in November 2000, in the promotion of contemporary artists give priority to the Shanghai gallery of qualifications older, second only to Shanghai shanghart gallery; Gallery is an early introduction of photography, 2003 held a "no problems - 10 young photographers exhibition" and "1:1 - pingyao international photography festival" and so on exhibition, the exhibition from the usual number of eight to five at once per year; In 2004 held the influential "photo - Japanese contemporary photography exhibition"; By 2006, the year held 13 exhibitions, including in Beijing, Taipei, the art exhibition held in Melbourne, Madrid, etc, also set up branches in Hong Kong. Gallery cooperation nearly 30 artists, including Chen Qiang, Paul haenle, hong lei, its wood, brush, Ma Liuming, represents, QuFengGuo, wai ka, Xu Lei, Yin, ZhangJian, zhou chunya, etc, also including back, shi and other contemporary artists. Galleries also rely on the internationalization of consumers, the Shanghai local collector is not much, so will go to the overseas exhibition, Hong Kong set up branches in China. Because, he thought, taxation, business environment, the relationship between Hong Kong, China will be an important trading center, their institutions in Hong Kong, China is running well. Recent study art in Europe market saw many take part in the "contemporary" Shanghai foreign galleries, really want to communicate with them, so to have eager expectation for the fair. Of course, what would be the results of fair remains to be seen. At present, the impact gallery industry development of China's most prominent problem is that the art market trading system imbalance, the primary market and secondary market have no division of labor.
In most countries, either from the perspective of trading or market ratio only occupy a small fraction of the auction house in the whole art market. Generally speaking, the gallery is the leader of the market, although they also clap works in the auction house, but more often, they are working directly with the artist, the latest work to the terminals of the art market collectors. Chinese art market transactions amounted to 200.3 billion yuan in 2013, in which art auction market turnover reached 43.8 billion, and galleries, art brokers, art fairs and so on the primary market turnover was $47.5 billion, almost the same as the auction market. The strength of strong of auction market in China. At present the most prominent problem is in charge of the auctioning industry constantly crossover and act as the role of the gallery. The auction house to deal directly with the artist, and presenting from the hand of the artist private collection artwork to auction, make the natural function of the gallery. In each big auction clinchs a deal record we see some of the young artists, their works haven't in the primary market long-term precipitation, was got at a sale, and became an object of auction market force holds. 's mistakes can be seen from abroad, direct auction of contemporary artist's work is not a wise choice. Su fu once directly on the 2008 MEDALS, Mr Hirst's work, although the move seems to be successful at that time, but it led to the next hirst a drop in prices and collectors collection of desire. Prices of explosive growth and rapid transition to the auction house on the market development of artists after challenge.
Chinese art cause huge financial industry to build rich industrial chain, is essentially a chain of interdependence and parasitic, the artist is producers, but the artist is parasitic on art dealer or entrepreneur's a parasitic groups, and art critic in the artist's a parasitic group, artists and critics, this economic dependence makes it lost the academic and artistic independence to some extent, therefore, to obtain the independence of the artistic creation and criticism, only out of this economic dependency, only economic independence, to the spirit of independence. And to get this kind of economic independence, only to get rid of the existing by entrepreneurs or art dealer directly packaging system, rely on independent foundation of reward or funding. Because the foundation is public, has no profit nature, are not directly involved in the art market. More and more capital through mortgage mortgage of art, art, art, art trust fund and other forms of financial intervention art, thus opened up China's financial "art" era, China's financial industry will trigger a huge art created rich industrial chain. Financial of art, is the art into financial instruments, with financial assets into individual and institutional management methods. Its main forms are: art property transactions; Art fund; Art bank and trust; Art of mortgage and mortgage; Art lease, etc.
Early western art market development, evaluation and approval, auction link have a mature system, a lot of collectors are hundreds of years history of family-run collectors, collection the mentality of collectors is very different with China, western art and financial docking is build on top of this. Britain on art and financial docking mainly has two forms, one is a professional art fund, the second is like jpmorgan chase, ubs and deutsche bank and other large international investment bank provide private art products, these Banks will also own collection of art as an investment direction, such as jpmorgan chase, from establishing the beginning of art collection, after one hundred years, collecting quantity is very large. In fact, the British on art and financial docking is not as bold as people think, is very careful, go for decades will cross out the steps. Deutsche bank as a private art products in the high-end customer service, even the rich capital international investment Banks also very cautious when selling this kind of product, first in terms of risk control and risk bearing ability difference of investors will be rejected, and the art of financial product investment cycle is very long, usually 5 to 7 years, for investors who need more cash flow, this is not an ideal investment tools, not willing to invest much speculators, but people really interested in art. In addition, in Europe, the use of art in all Banks mortgage is not accepted, because the evaluation of art be subjective, many Banks could not make professional judgment, such as deutsche bank though accept art as collateral, but never depends on the case, but according to the customer to provide art category and the historical data analysis, as the market situation is difficult to predict the contemporary art would it is difficult to obtain. For the exchange of Chinese art world attention problems, in the west is actually only a Paris stock exchange, and a Luxembourg exchange is preparing, next year can get license. Paris, the exchange with Chinese literature by the essential difference is that the issue of asset packages are deceased artists, their works assessment identified by a set of market data as the foundation, trading history very clear transparent, almost no too many human factors involved. Which is lacking in China, the Chinese art of the secondary market price gap is too large, makes the valuation become a big problem.
Chinese art financialization and there is no basis, than in the west go too late, but better than western walk fast, can absorb in a few years, copy the western system, perhaps because of go too fast, easy to falling down. Today's western pattern is determined by the law of the western art market itself, has its own historical reason, is because of the internal cause, to develop these financial instruments, but China's national conditions and the west is completely different, no matter from the mechanism, structure or culture background difference is huge, so China can't simply copy the western existing pattern, but should according to own actual situation, to explore their own path, creating their own rules of the game. Past by western art market fry pay a lot of Chinese contemporary art, is not really for aesthetic and artistic value and collection, the essence of the work itself is not high, just using the western materials, techniques, forms, to illustrate a particular history of China, catered to the west in China has just opened its doors to seek novelty and peep mentality, this kind of work can only be as a purely financial investment tool, it is very difficult, in the west is really recognized in art history scholars and critics. In the current Chinese contemporary art and traditional culture art of fracture, incompatible with the west, abandoned by the international investment market after the confused period, both the international field of vision, and inherits the essence of Chinese culture of a new generation of artists may be the most potential of international art market in the future powerhouse. China should gradually return to their own traditions, not only in creation way gradually return to Chinese tradition, also should return to China on the connotation of culture temperament, Chinese contemporary art has been in the 1990 s, until the 2008 financial crisis has many years of virtual high price bubble burst of contemporary Chinese art, for its loss of confidence, the west began reviewing China's art, now more and more westerners realize hype has become an anachronism, an increasing number of auction houses, galleries and curator of personalized began to pay more attention to the Chinese artist itself, independent language and art connotation, rather than take a fancy to stir-fry to how much money in the future. Western art is more and more attention to new, more can on behalf of the Chinese contemporary art, and with the growing of Chinese collectors, and increasingly mature, auction and financial services organizations to these emerging artists pricing power is gradually shift to the Chinese own hands. Financialization as "art" of Chinese art market must be promising, but the risk similarly alarming. How to coordinate the relationship between art and financial is a problem worth thinking about.
On the way of art financialization must abandon the traditional point of view, to improve investment skill, sum up the experiences of guide to hide, in the case of a full study art market trends, in view of the development of the art financialization. Art and financial like a pair of lovers, lang "fortune" female "and". Financial with deep pockets, for all sectors, and boost economic damage. And art is the valuable spiritual wealth of human beings, is the mysterious treasure, is yet to be developed is also essential to improve the life quality of the human. In the art of domestic financial mode has many, but no matter which model, there are problems to be solved. The first is safety, it is to point to the pattern of risk control, but art is caused abnormality, between tangible and intangible assets, making it security issues were focused on the link inside, security and pattern has nothing to do, but from the mode of link. Followed by efficiency, financial activity certainly bring benefits. Which benefit is higher, is the time to design the financial model to consider problem. On the efficiency of problem is not the art itself, but the market perspective. Efficiency of financial mode, main point to art auction, pawn, trust, fund, insurance and so on are efficient. Most of the buyers in Chinese contemporary art is the commercial speculators, mostly financial investors in the United States, and the lack of real private collectors or art history scholars, experts have authority checks of museums and art institutions, etc. Why China's art market, the auction is scenery, while the other is hard to make money, because the auction has 13, have system, set up an auction company has some requirements, from a profit perspective is more efficient, different from the traditional concept of art, art as a personal and financial institutions financing way, cover art asset-like, property rights, including: the art attached by the property rights, copyright, creditor's rights, ownership and disposition and usufruct; Assets into the market and the property rights trading, the rights and interests of the artwork attached in the form of private assets traded on the market, to accomplish the art assets to liquidate and circulation; Investment, income and risk, when art assets to financialization manner, objectively in line with the profitability, safety, liquidity, namely general sense: investment, profit and risk. Chinese art market development to today's scale, no doubt, related to the nineties last century western art driver, because they will be a large number of Chinese contemporary artists to the international market, led to silence the Chinese art market boom for many years, but it also makes the Chinese art of pricing power holding hands in the west for a long time, China's auction company to refer to several lines of price to pricing in the west. Now this kind of circumstance is shifting, and along with this pricing game process is not only the Chinese increasingly summoned the purse strings, but also the international market for Chinese art review.
Qi baishi works if all day price clinch a deal is true. A picture of were selling for 100000 yuan less than three years ago, now want to buy more than ten million or even fifty million. This price is the price of the market's top contemporary artists from Europe and America, than even in the early of the republic of China art master huang, qi baishi, price is also high. It had the obvious malicious hype tendency of speculative capital. Can't say all the auctions and "day price" price manipulation and do innings, but take aim at arbitrage profits price manipulation is really exist. Most current almost impossible to get artwork in the market price of the three years ago, basically between thousand and three hundred thousand. That is to say, in the past two years in the auction will be a similar amount to more than one hundred millions of acquisitions to work, two, three years at the auction to ten million or even fifty million, and sell it to some love but don't know much about art, art is very rich but impulse purchase collectors, to seek exorbitant profits. Since 2006 auction for the emergence of can clearly conclude that: there exists a phenomenon of "day price bureau" art auction, art auction market price manipulation, most of the work for transaction is actually a "false". Even a small part of the real deal, these works of art for level and international status has also been too exaggerated. And the art of the current market price is far beyond the actual art value. Art auction will be a normal "support", but China's current "day price bureau" is beyond the normal auction business protection category, but severe violation of business rules and academic standards, the use of the media and the new investors the new art of ignorance, and impulse purchase for profiteering. Currently works for the so-called artists is mainly refers to the past 15 years have certain achievement and popularity in the field of contemporary painting artist, but the composition of the group is also very complex. But mainly in the mid eighty s and early eighty s debut two batches. Some at the auction are packaged into star for the painter to plead, his painting is marked to twenty million or even fifty million auction, they are not assigned to the tens of millions, because the picture is used to sell more than 20.
Prepare for who is the man behind the scenes? Art circle has been controversial. "Day price" mainly by purchased a batch of paintings or hype hype group people to operate, do no relationship with the painter personal. Recent rumours some painter to draw their own to the auction to "price", this is mainly some star artist following the second and third line of the painter. In fact, some domestic representative painters are less likely to participate in the hype. For example, liu xiaodong, Fang Li works rarely, Fang Li is one of the most potential hype, but the price has not come up to the top, for the hype that people can get work on May be very small. Quantity is less, the works of Mr. Liu over the past few years has scrambled for very high, is limited to the original to a few pieces of representative works, the rest is not so much the number of recent works on. And some other artists work for the number of relatively more, it can be out a few years ago, they did not consider the collectors will frequently, and desperate to such high prices. Is not eligible to participate in most of the contemporary artists do, because they have not enough art popularity and has certain market foundation works of "bureau". Although star painters of the market price at auction works are tens of millions, but in fact the studio selling price can not be more than never. Auction and painters for private sale price is not the same price, even may be only a third of the auction day price is less than.
Chinese art auction an immature lies in: the art masterpiece of ten years ago and in new price not big difference, and in the west is very open, such as Picasso's masterpiece can fetch a $, but hundreds of thousands of dollars are also likely to general works, can't be in a period of time every picture is a billion. But China's sky-high works only in recent years have just finished my new paintings, just repeat the same image and style of work ten years ago. This decade almost tantamount to draw a picture in, sell a sky-high, international art history from without precedent. In the auction, for other is not the name of the second-rate painter, three, four circulations painters and young artist market sales are bullish on all the way, ready to sell tens of a. The whole art world so formed a sky-high auction as the axis of value chain, the auction day price become the real academic "authority", whose work has become a star, for he is in river's lake into "academic representatives". An increasing number of young artists believe that as long as find the capital support, made money, everything else is easy to fix. Critics can be hired to write articles, journals can spend money on the layout, the auction can look for the boss to do, as long as the river in legend made millions or tens of millions of you, you are a person, others will soon to you sit up and take notice. The art affects ecological pattern of course can't say that all people, there are many good artists in the art of experiments and exploration, but it is undeniable that a few years the commercialization of the contemporary art from escalating. Actually in creating an auction of contemporary art and the star system as the main body for the commercialization of the games, the result is that the marketization of avant-garde art. On the one hand, Chinese society is the new avant-garde art in the past 20 years of hard work to pay tribute, capital and media began to fully support the Chinese contemporary art, hope that the cultural art group can continue to keep the posture, shape international influence for China's new culture; But on the other hand, the art circles because of the influx of a large number of orders, more and more people are using in the past twenty years art rebellion and to explore its image and reputation, turning it into batch production of "symbol" product, the legendary successful painter employed the gunners to factory production, is not unfounded. Studio artist with large and assistant, like a personal symbol product production organizers and art entrepreneurs. Some star artist because too many orders, they will also receive a variety of business customers and studio to buy buyers directly. Almost have no time to explore the art. Although every picture is not the same as the absolute sense, but change an Angle to draw a, in a small details changed, is actually a disguise "copy". This has not explore the new value to sell is the representative work of the same price as ten years ago. But buyers and whether these, most people buy the purpose is not to collect, is to buy shares, art and sell it to the next one. Rob to draw more people, the price of the painting is rising, the phenomenon of clivia, like many years ago, the art trade in fact is in the nature of "pyramid". This regardless of the art of speculative capitalization operation rules, as auction for more and more high, many dangerous art investors pouring into, and the risk of "Wolf" are also growing. It mainly for auction price will be ten years cycle shortened to run all the way high three years, more and more beyond the psychological endurance of buyer groups. Another reason is that most of the day price painter, even including some of the young painter of the second and third tier, not through the gallery of the primary market long-term matting, directly on the auction house, which not only cause the auction price and gallery, studio the selling price of the double track, will also make several times higher than gallery market auction day price to become a kind of long-term marketable in false price. All of this, have been named as curator and the trace of the organizers of the "hype" painstakingly, greed, ambition and the pursuit of "eyeball economy" impetuous mentality.
In "725 art fire" news conference, yuan zhen auction director Henry huang said the cause is unknown, damaged works a total of 74 pieces, value forecasts for 18.189 million, all the losses resulting from the fire will be Shared by yuan zhen and Henry logistics company, but it is not specific compensation agreement with artists. Under the condition of the comprehensive insurance cover art, appear this kind of situation, should be in accordance with the relevant clauses of contract, the insurance company within the scope of insurance liability for claims; After the claim on the insurance company to compensate for the loss of part, shall, in accordance with the relevant person in charge of fault and the entire auction activity in each link of cooperation agreement classify the responsibility and bear. Because of this accident involving the subject of legal relationship are different, such as damage to all of works of art with the legal relationships between curators and trust auction relations between the auction company, thus the curators entrusted to transport, so will involve the consignment contract relationship, or the auction company entrust the transportation company to form the auction company checked contract relationship with shipping company. According to the contract relativity principle, damage to art of all people should be on the legal relationship of one party to the direct recovery. Simple from damage compensation level, in the case of the affected paintings uninsured, injury consequence to undertake according to eventually cause the occurrence of fire, the extent of the damage and the damage caused by the fault degree to be liable for damages. Insurance company claims amount is buying art insurance coverage, according to the domestic art insurance companies, protect the forehead to general according to art market prices to determine the specific amount, such as a large auction auction record and transaction record of large galleries and some will work to get the international auction house is appraisal to determine the final amount, according to the coverage of compensation. If the work is not completely under the condition of damage can be repaired, repair, in accordance with the principle of first repair again to depreciation to compensate. Domestic art insurance does not perfect enough, as far as I know there are several domestic insurance companies such as danger, the Pacific, peace, business and huatai, sinosure art works in the insurance company has such insurance business, but the insurance company usually only for national museum, large art exhibition, gallery, art gallery or auction company, don't accept personal entrust insurance. Before two years into the market in our country the axa insurance company is the specialized insurance companies do art, recent works of art in our country insurance market is very active, and the insurance company also accept the entrustment of an individual to cover art. Has a large exhibition of works of art to cover all, the current domestic art insurance company is very difficult to separate by a company accept insurance, creates a co-insured by several insurance companies. Such as the 2010 world expo is co-insured by five insurance company. Specific coverage is determined by several pilot insurance company in 2010 after 11 is planted, according to market demand to improve the concrete difference due to different risks and insurance companies, so each are not identical. The insurance company, basically adopt according to the coverage and art assessment tests to determine the final amount. From danger is planted for difference with foreign art insurance is not particularly big, really is the difference between a foreign art insurance system more perfect, since ready to insure there will be a professional agency for agent (art brokers, etc.), then the insurance company for a written assessment to the physical assessment (or hire art industry consultant) to the site environment evaluation and a series of procedures are professional institutions and strict control. Success after the insured and the insurance company will according to the category of art sent staff to each piece of art with local details, certificate and seal the photos, the whole process of cast a clear division of responsibilities, in an orderly way, the applicant may only to do is fill out a form.
Chinese society has made a lot of deformed "star", the star in the Internet age, the truth is ruthless revealed, the fake behind the "star", hiding the countless lies. With the advent of the Internet age, weibo and the prevalence of WeChat, since the media become a communication tool and information source of choice for most people. At a time when "celebrities" is very difficult to do, because often in illusion will be in a few minutes break, and long-term of shaping the image of "good" may disappear after a few minutes. Many strange "success" case, such as the early sister lotus, feng, to dry lulu... Seems fair fame means success, no matter is the reputation or infamous, eventually had contact with "benefit". Art world knows Chinese na, of course, the American pop art master Andy Warhol (Andy Warhol, 1928-1987) famously "everyone can be successful for 15 minutes" as many artists pursues the golden rule. Especially in China, the artist in order to attract eyeball, is, by hook or by crook. Means used by artists also limited to individual behavior, has yet to reach the social and personality the bottom line. However "7.25 art fire" is challenged the moral bottom line of human society, in order to attract eyeballs, manufacturing topic news, obtain economic benefits, even the "plot" fire. The blaze has nothing to do with art, it has been a controversy in the art market game rules and human morals.
In the art world of the network age, does not need to deliberately create the star. We have from the "big time" into the "small time", contemporary art has become a personal way of thinking about social problems, even for the public topic, also reveal to the uniqueness of individual thinking. From "personal", create a collective worship "star" is a breach of the current era. For a long time, the world of art no longer produces the so-called trend, but only produce successful individual artist, the reason for this. In Beijing are billions of auction by a little-known "Shanghai yuan Henry zhen auction co., LTD.", while China's auction company shall not be beyond the implementation of the auction business, so the auction is not only ineffective but illegal. Even considering from normal commercial risk, select the local Beijing auction company is preferred, because no matter from collectors experience, customer resources or artwork auction auction company of Beijing have many to choose from. Paradox is in particular, zhen yuan Henry has little art auction before the auction company experience, even, yuan zhen auction company's name is Henry from 31 October 2012 from harry can only auction co., LTD., the change. This, of course, let the people questioning whether hidden hidden tricks! Exhibition and sale, the relationship between artists and curators cooperation do exhibition, curator and auction, auction company directly cooperation main participating artists and curators hold art fund is contract relationship... All this shows that it is just a circle a few artists, art fund at a trade fair. Due to loss of the bottom line of hype, let us to the artists and curators, lost confidence at the same time.
Contemporary art system of power discourse is the constant pursuit of innovation in artistic language, is not only for decades, is also the common manifestations of art history and evolution of civilization. Besides must pursue art form means innovation, also need to pursue innovation, ideological content so as to avoid the great history of dull atrophy. Art did not form a new, on the surface of a nature to mention inner ideas of the new. Here, there is no difference between Chinese culture and postmodernism art, or means of art and civilization completely dead. Asked to give up the pursuit of art from the form means to the inner meaning of creative art performance together, a society in culture and art kept in the same following relationship, which shows that it is dull back aging nation civilization. Admittedly, one-sided pursuit of form "novelty" hollow, but must respect the pursuit of "novelty" is the artistic creation of purely formal legal path, the pursuit of forms of "novelty" is at least steps to promote the development of art as a whole. Such as wang anyi pop cultural revolution paintings, though far from language form of the original novel, but relative to China local traditional art is same refreshing, such as xu beihong are the western classical painting, Chinese painting to the "serious consequences" of the revolution. This has actually reflects the Chinese culture creativity extremely poor, little foreign novelty for the cultural impact, visible how dull behind the Chinese civilization.
After 1964 to Andy warhol the cloth in the box marked "art history" after the established laws of art, for decades the dominant, art "end". Only the pursuit of "novelty", will not change the status quo of "americanized" global art and contemporary art power system, and does not create new historical opportunity, to promote the transformation of Chinese culture. Is not equal to Andy warhol became the terminator of human art history. Only the art of "novelty", instead will put an end to the era of Andy warhol. Without the double "novelty" pursuit of form and content, it is impossible to change the phenomenon of "the global art americanized, only by the pursuit of the Chinese art" novelty "will release the real cultural creativity. Contemporary art is a "vulgar" international college. Behind in the novel and the surface "pluralism", more and more standardization, standardization and institutionalization of contemporary art, art is becoming more and more mystifying and exclude all others. The pursuit of common human interests to contribute to world peace and progress. Democracy against dictatorship, laws relative to the rule of law, is a historical progress. In the late 19th century early 20th century, the western modern culture gradually exposed latent crisis, after world war I and world war ii, the world nearly destroyed, postmodernism was originally intended to criticize modernism its crisis, and adopt a completely negate the extreme way. But the resolution of postmodernism on value not only harm the non-western cultures, and also the value foundation of erosion to the west itself. The culture of not once and for all. Even without the emergence of modern civilization, the traditional ancient civilization, might be at risk, a plague has led to the destruction of the mankind. Human life is always a challenge, only by insisting on exploring the innovation to overcome a steady stream of crisis. Post-modernism civilization like past civilization, there must be some extreme phenomenon, but it also need to constantly criticizing, innovation can be overcome. Postmodernism and there is a close connection between the new liberalism economy. Western capitalism today in every aspect of the crisis, the financial excesses of capitalism expansion caused by the economic crisis, the two levels of social wealth differentiation, lower class are deprived of their wealth, social injustice, increasingly postmodernism is responsible. Modern society is essentially the crisis society, capitalism is also in the face of the adjustment and transformation. Post-modernism and new liberalism existence crisis is inevitable phenomenon, however, not the end it leads to a perfect system of history of capitalism. Postmodernism "pluralism" to form, it's different for the global civilization culture symbol "abuse" - cut off behind the symbols represent different cultures "roots", processing them into simple consumer products business, make them attached to the United States. But, like anything, it also has a fatal flaw. Stresses and the pursuit of "diversity" is a progress of postmodernism, avoid extreme simplification of the instrumental rationality, therefore advocate in the experience of consciousness, the cultural thoughts constitute a rich and diverse ecological balance. At the same time, "pluralism" is not equalitarianism, culture or civilization have relative to the quality of the relationship, "pluralism" is to prevent a single extreme route and cultural vitality of checks and balances. Cut the postmodernism "diversity" as different cultures "roots" culprit, apparently melodramatic Chinese nationalist and conservative culture.
No historical roots culture is perfect, its history and adapt to the need to promote history; Culture is not to keep the same with "roots", but to keep the fresh creativity in any historical time. In addition, the "American" is equal to "consumer culture" or "hollowing out" beauty is a kind of typical revenge of the concept of nationalism, like a Chinese living in the vacuum of history, has never been a commodity and currency. No matter how "diversity", contemporary art on the surface of the end of art, the world's art americanized, has been hollowed out behind the art value of support. Today, the art of "novelty" means that the culture of mediocrity. Global for contemporary art, is more as a financial tool to obtain huge profits, in the cultural history is difficult to prove their worth. Any attempt to prove that American culture is the "hollowing out" or "which", must be extremely historical hatred causes the brain hemorrhage. In addition, the artistic form of "novelty" is abandoned, the mediocrity of culture, so it not appear to die was sick culture. Some current of contemporary art, for some of them may be water, but this does not affect the cultural history of the great works in the contemporary showed a "novelty", also is the release of the era of creativity. A work doesn't even have "novelty" on the surface of the form, the remaining value is much more dangerous, as the current of the mainstream of Chinese art "stereotyped party writing, the theme, the old", they are in a contemporary inaction is another matter, the key is to indulge in a conservative, has covered the power violence. Over the past 20 years, Chinese contemporary art to the international contemporary art system, quite achievements. But there is one fact that cannot be ignored, compared with the first half of the 20th century Chinese art, there is a missing - the Chinese culture of "subjectivity" and "subject consciousness". It is due to the lack of "subjectivity", Chinese contemporary art cannot get rid of the label "postcolonial" culture. China in the international world originally, was only and closed during the cultural revolution in the history of China's comprehensive glaze over backward, with the advanced civilization of society contrast, these have become a kind of national culture "subjectivity" and "subject consciousness". Without a culture of creativity, it lack of form and content of "novelty" art, is doomed to be new colonial. Great China after one thousand years of brilliant glory, until the western powers gunboats several loud roar at the gate, the sleeping lion had a rude awakening, will face the reality, I still insight calls for "long skill with barbarians". Now that is behind The Times, to create his own inventions have been too late, only "of the spear, any", so "to" popular gradually. Pick up conveniently, don't bother, the somebody else also willing to conditionally allow you to take, "si" soon have the broad market, so that soon to become a national character. Over the years, "ugly Chinese" are to believers, of course, we can talk in a new era of entertainment is the highest "socialism" are the radical, inappropriate, and advancing with The Times of new citizens who have new alternative word: "shanzhai".
China's art is the Chinese dream? Chinese art the real way out in where? Art rough long way forward, dotted with thorns. To reflect in many aspects, the art. Although we have a history of five thousand years of outstanding gorgeous culture, creating had countless artistic peak, but in the globalization and world integration (or wholesale westernization) as the tide today, it seems to also can bear the cost of our nation. And then, the western culture and art to "take" come in, people can finally see them all, artists will know more, more than 100 years of western modern and contemporary art history by Chinese artists in a dozen years, like the roller coasters to run again, always to the swift, the speed, not process, but beg efficiency, seems to be to "western imperialists" reveal our "China speed". Chinese modern steering is a gradual process, from the initial maintain national main body color to eventually become the national nature of the world. Modernity is a necessarily a go nationalization, to regional, nationalization process. A modern society is necessarily the mix main body of the nation, it is not for the west flattery, but related to China's modernization and internationalization of dual. These learning painting home of artists, the final of "ink painting" has been adopted as the main language of art, "ink painting" is not immutable, but the "ink painting" as the carrier of Chinese traditional culture, the value of their level of significance. The development of Chinese contemporary art should not only pursue the form of "novel", but in the first half of the 20th century after the brilliant Chinese culture, value back to the level of exploration. Chinese people are good at "stilts", stand high and see far, leg extension, the pace is so big, but unavoidably doubt whether go steady. After "to" Chinese artists will either a western artists with a little modification was in front of the Chinese people display their latest "research", to lay the river's lake position; Will either ancestors left things suite panoply of western modern and contemporary art is to reveal "Oriental", international came back again to the Chinese people show off their own "international identity." Also have been part of the man of insight to reflect on China art way, also have done a lot of art, trying to kernel "for" art gives its native culture, to achieve its nationalization. But mostly become a mere formality, appear to miss not west, neither fish nor fowl, like keep the braid of manchu rural migration is wearing a tuxedo. Art scene, there is a strong nationalist sentiment cultural scholars, art critics, anger, complaints, the west's cultural colonization blame people. "Take the somebody else's hand short, eat the somebody else ZuiRuan", come out to mix, "take" the somebody else, sooner or later will also. The first half of the 20th century, xu beihong, Lin Fengmian, Jiang Zhaohe, liu haisu, such as back from abroad, high-spirited, highly effective, draw lessons from western culture, criticism and transformation of Chinese traditional culture, from the different aspects of open, promoted the modern transformation of Chinese culture, with them in the past more than 20 years of Chinese contemporary art has a big difference: never give up "subjectivity" of Chinese culture, attitude never flattering to the west. As a has the consciousness of culture and contemporary artists and should consciously away from the "ink painting", if the ink painting represents a corrupt nation's subject consciousness, it should be consciously plague away from this ideological culture. A true artist must defend human, lofty, living thing, no cultural attitude of the artist, is often worse than dogs, must be baby tools, power and violence is the historical tragedy of the failure of national culture. Picasso is said to have told visiting chang, I dare not to you to go to China, do you have a bad Chinese qi baishi. And then asked, puzzled you China has such a great artist qi baishi, as the outstanding art form as ink painting, calligraphy, why so many people also ran to Europe to study art? Picasso's proposition to have doubts and we need to reflect on.
Anyone can claim to be an artist, even claim to be a genius. Any color, sketch, or lines, in the name of the sacred subjective feeling, can be work. Impulse skills suppressed, honestly replaced by accidental whim, makeshift. The artist has become impossible to define. Boyce planted 7000 oak are now grow lush - this since 1982 "social sculpture" plan, the artist died a year later completed by his son finally. Boyce has been fiddling with the stones and felt, has now become the world's race to the art gallery. In order to (1) the modern aesthetic, duchamp were sent to the armory show a sign a urinal with the name of the manufacturer, and the new classical master ingres borrowed the name of a full of metaphor: "spring".
Ironically, the challenge of arts to eventually slink into the palace of art, the pompidou in Paris art center, as one of the most important art of the 20th century, it clearly displayed in a prominent position; By duchamp art way of "metaphysics" creation "fiendish to take art", in fact is not possible for the "violence" "certain ideas", because of duchamp art is liberated, but not will be art can refer to a specific context.
No specific contextual art can refer to, it means is uncertain, as a result of the uncertainty of it for the cause of can refers to the random of lenovo, how it can produce specific point to specific problems, the resulting "certain ideas" to specific problems. Against the idea of true art, "fiendish to take art" is an old way of art (in avant-garde art history), it is a pity that we thought it was new. When art did not establish a new concept and methodology, and not be bound by traditional art and modern art, and western "orientalism" preference, art as a pure emotion vent "fiendish to take art" was not a bit strange. Art history a humorous joke: once about the definition of art, seems to be overnight lost its reason to exist, became confused and vague.
"The artist is what person?" Is a puzzling problem, did not make the process of contemporary art to slow down the pace of it. Interesting is: growing in a broad cultural background artists to expand the art of all kinds of different experiments, and hope and public sharing of new art, although people have not abandoned nearly one hundred years of contemporary art of confused, angry and complain, but as time goes on, people seem to have more enthusiasm than ever before. The audience in the face of experimental art, never like initially hostile, they began to include those who still don't understand the work, at the same time full of curiosity about the artist's personal experiences. This is both an unprecedented strengthening the relationship between art and money, and intervention of market factors and commercial means, has become a contemporary art with the passage of the advantageous social connections, and further encourage the creation of the artist has taken an increasingly diverse strategies to cater to the audience.
After world war ii art experiment, the artist from the human spiritual mentor to spiritual role conversion in the evolution of the wizard, let run counter to the popular art, alienated from each other; In the first few years of the 21st century, we are finally able to faint feel: today's curators and artists, is for the close and interactive of contemporary art and the public work together, if art really as we wish, to strengthen the contact closely related between the individual and society, and to share the valuable things in our era culture, so the public expect about contemporary art will be obvious.
In today's world of art is a this-time-is-different development situation, the requirement of art theory researchers and, standing on the position of Chinese culture, update the traditional knowledge structure, change the inherent concept of consciousness, grasp the contemporary study means, can and various art and western art trends, establish the standpoint of Chinese studies of foreign art, reaction and make achievements in the development of the world art. In such a 2 l century digital information age, to master English, computer... Has become a necessary life skill. For foreign researchers in fine arts, these seemingly has nothing to do with the foreign art research skills, often will directly affect the procession of the entire study and development. When in line with international standards, direct and effective communication can save a lot of unnecessary for our research by side-issues, crossed the compile the original only working procedures, is directly exposed to the real appearance of text and images. About the sociology of art, the deepest impression in our memory, I'm afraid "vulgar sociology". We remember from the end of the 70 s last century, Chinese art as eager to take off a dirty clothes, hope to get rid of the "vulgar sociology". Since the late 70 s last century, Chinese art from the "tools" to "aesthetic" transformation, the transformation is from criticism of the "vulgar sociology". Sociology once "vulgar" is terrible, but the art of sociological standpoint and methods but there's nothing wrong. Problem is, out of dislike for the vulgar sociology, results overdo, art sociology has been in limbo.
And the position of art sociology is corresponding to the position of "art ontology", this is the Chinese art world in the eighty s the mainstream position. It emphasizes that art and the artist's ontological position, emphasizing the aesthetic, emphasizes the principle of art, emphasize the art language, form and expression, emphasize the artist's elitism position, it even believe that art is art, it can get rid of the society, history, significance and exist independently. Research about the "form" in the 1980 s; On the study of law of art itself, and the period of aesthetic hot, is directly related to the art ontology of dominant position. Compared with the past will simply as tools to fight the vulgar sociology of art, art ontology position of an important advance in the development of Chinese art at that time. , of course, this change is not isolated, from that time, because of the Chinese art shows a tendency of opening to the outside world, it is influenced by western art of all kinds of thoughts, ideas, and the position of art ontology is originated in the late 19th century, in the early twentieth century with the concept of western modernism art produced some corresponding relation, which is needed by Chinese art at that time. It is interesting to note that on the issue of sociology of art, Chinese and western just present a different direction, when China is keen to abandon the vulgar sociology in western contemporary art, art sociology happens to be popular. Western art since the 60 s and seventy s last century, began to deviate from the modernism of formalism, by art ontology to sociology, whatever is the slogan of western contemporary art, how, how to form, its basic tendency to realistic society's political, economic, and cultural issues of comprehensive intervention, as a theorist generalization, its important characteristics is: "the art of political, social and life". In terms of public art, as the concept of contemporary art, its theory resource is from sociology.
The United States set up in 1965 "national endowment for the arts," it is one of the aim of "to the American people popularize art"; At the same time, the American contemporary art to the public's another approach is to "artistic" percentage plan, through legislation, one percent of the provisions of any construction project investment must be used for sculpture or environment art. Other developed countries in the western world is also approximately. American theorist rush in the postmodernism: a sociological interpretation of "the article pointed out that" self-contained "modernism movement is caused by the different art in the field of the independence and differentiation, and establish the back modernism thought on the basis of the structure characteristic of contemporary art is to eliminate differences. After eliminating differences of western contemporary art still has its common foundation, is is the sociology of art. In the last century in the late seventy s, early eighty s, when western art art and society, and the public, and connect with each other of life, on the contrary, China's art towards art ontology, to the art elitism; At this time, China's western, not contemporary art, but the art of modernism. In the scene in the history of western modernism art become a thing of the past, it's from the standpoint of art ontology, elitism position precisely adapted to the we abandon the vulgar sociology is needed. Between Chinese and western art in sociology on the reverse direction, is based on the two different social, historical reasons, and the problems caused by the different art scene.
Internal transcendence of Chinese aesthetic culture
After five thousand years, Chinese culture has a very deep and unique culture. Chinese traditional culture is aesthetic culture and artistic culture. The character of Chinese culture is that good at internal transcendence, the pursuit of unlimited lofty spiritual realm, involving senior emotion, aesthetics, ethics and religion and Chinese traditional philosophy, advocated by senior is aesthetics, ethics, religion sentiment, is by no means such as emotional response; Is rational and even exceeds the rational spirit of sentiment, mental state, is by no means perceptual emotion such as some sort of pleasure or enjoyment. Produce beauty, is the core idea of Chinese traditional culture, including moral realm and the spiritual realm, and harmony is the Chinese philosophy's pursuit of the highest mental state, is also the highest spiritual nature, of course, nature is the highest of Chinese traditional culture in the aesthetic realm. Confucian value, ethics, and to cultivate one's morality as the starting point, finally achieve "inside the saint outside the king" and the flat world. "Confucianism has always been tireless in seek how to achieve a highly improve the moral realm and perceptual reality show up when the moral realm, become the object of intuitive and emotional experience, in the Confucian view is a kind of aesthetic realm, aesthetic realm is to achieve highly improve the moral realm." Taoist pursues the nature, the pursuit of "tao", so the Taoist pursues the methodist and line, along the nature, inaction and all for the philosophy of life. "For of Taoist inaction refers to unintentionally, for no purpose, beyond utilitarianism as, let it be as. Taoist philosophy of life ', shows the spiritual pursuit of absolute freedom and beyond to the plight of life, with an aesthetic purpose, make the Taoist philosophy of life with a distinctive aesthetic colour. In the Taoist view, the way of natural origin, is also a beautiful principle, the way of experience nature (environment) is both a daoist self-conscious pursuit of aesthetic, also is the ultimate pursuit of aesthetics." Associated with art relations of Buddhism also emphasize aesthetic artistic conception. Attached to the buddhist art of Buddhism also emphasize aesthetic transcendence and state, the basic aesthetic form of buddhist art and its requirement for aesthetic feeling, although want to accord with the need of religion, but that doesn't detract from the aesthetic art. Although on the content of Buddhism has certain influence on the form of artistic expression, Buddhism artists also in accordance with the principle to create the image and the aesthetic realm, but that does not detract from the Buddhism art itself unique aesthetic value, on the contrary, instead of buddhist art form a kind of style is prominent, distinctive form of art. Buddhism on the aesthetic, combined with the study of Buddhism, the pursuit of artistic conception, the unity of Buddha and buddhist formed a kind of born, different from general temporal characteristic aesthetic transcendence.
Our mass aesthetic almost still frames at a certain kind of trying to build all the embarrassment of the same level, some still shaping people's aesthetic and narrow criteria field, but we still can from multiple side appreciates the loose environment changes gradually, also from revolutionary realism with revolutionary romanticism aesthetic utopia back to many controversial social reality. Narrow sense of beauty, elite began to discuss the relationship between form and content, begin to understand the western modernism and post-modernism art trend. In the process of change, we by the appreciation of the art in the field of habits were stuck in the format state the development to bring thinking and participatory intervention of art or artistic interpretation of events, from the development since the beginning of the 20th century western art achievements of inertia hold resistance development to combine with important theory in the 20th century art schools to establish inner link, as the point of "the interpretation of dreams" Freud theory affected the surrealist painter, Picasso using visual movement founded cubism is by the theory of relativity in time the impact of the concept of the fourth dimension, and these need to have a thorough understanding of background knowledge of western art for the Chinese public has a great gap with wrong information, such as pleasing visual appreciation habits of thought and the traditional Oriental culture makes invisible to establish barriers between Volkswagen and avant-garde art, people instinctively accept more intuitive visual perception of folk culture, such as paper cutting, New Year pictures, goose egg round face smile pictures of movie stars, and based on the realistic content is more than history, or in the form of youth theme paintings. The masses as the aesthetic subject, with The Times gradually open and broaden in the field of cognition, trying to selectively accept new things. And simply from the perspective of the person's individual psychological sense of curiosity is a motive force of the psychological cognition and perception, if one thing or behaviors in sight for a long time, then say to the things or actions and people have lost the sense of wonder, the subconscious mind can let a person mind consciousness to find sense can arouse the curiosity of things or actions, this, in turn, stimulate, engender new designs to meet the aesthetic level of realistic need. As a result, the infiltration of western culture, the expansion of information and the individual aesthetic fatigue so on extrinsic factors make our aesthetic "freshness" sharply reduced.
Aesthetic style of vitality maximize depends on its social environment, whether in the process of art history or in any society, has the broad participation of the public aesthetic, can enter a benign state of cultural development is the spirit of people to the well-being of the world's largest. All in all, the concept of aesthetic transcendence is numerous, have different emphases, and of what is on the basis of personal experience and aesthetic transcendence, therefore, the connotation of aesthetic transcendence is very difficult to have a unified standard. But to be sure, mastery of connotation of aesthetic transcendence lies in how to understand and not how to achieve. The connotation of aesthetic transcendence is not tell people how to deliberately pursue or achieve artistic conception, we can't from a tool or means to realize the aesthetic value beyond. Alone in terms of aesthetic transcendence concept, aesthetic is beyond the goal or beyond, it is not necessary to discuss the topic. Because aesthetic transcendence is produced in a certain environment and feeling, is a kind of objective rather than the common aesthetic activities and spiritual activities, it not only involves the aesthetic, and mental health status, mental state and psychological is closely related to mental health, and so on some basic conditions. Aesthetic transcendence is not everyone can realize, even trying to somehow or rational understanding does not necessarily can achieve aesthetic transcendence. So, the connotation of aesthetic transcendence is not to tell us how to reach this point, but how to grasp and understanding. As people the spirit of the artistic conception of self expression, aesthetic transcendence has certain complexity and abstractness, just standing in the perspective of aesthetics or philosophical point of view to define the aesthetic transcendence, may be incomplete. At the very least, the point of view of psychology is the basis of the integral. So, this paper discusses the connotation of aesthetic transcendence, maybe we need more focused on the aesthetic and aesthetic transcendence and the person's mental state, the relationship between consciousness and existence state, which could help us further understand the essential connotation of aesthetic transcendence. So, before understanding the connotation of aesthetic transcendence, we must have the profound understanding to the essence of aesthetic transcendence. In humanistic psychology point of view, not only has physical, emotional, rational three layers, at the same time, people also have another level, spirit. Define it as the spiritual humanism psychology, and think it is a person will eventually go beyond the first three level and achieve higher consciousness state produced by a kind of mental state, it is beyond reason, emotion, therefore, also known as "transcendence" level. Man of this level is not only more noble, at the same time produce strong aesthetic consciousness and aesthetic realm, and ultimately achieve aesthetic transcendence. However, the aesthetic transcendence is also associated with value, significance, or say, although this is the problem of the psychological level, but the level of value and the significance of the problem. Aesthetic transcendence as high a reflection of the value and meaning of the world, its essence is necessarily beyond, the value and meaning and noble world is the essence of person really.
Beyond not only is the essence of aesthetic transcendence, but also the essence of the meaning of the owner, but there are people's consciousness of life value of instantaneous excitation. Beyond is the essence of man. Further in terms of aesthetic transcendence, therefore, is to create an ideal state, is the state of freedom, and beauty is the state of freedom. The state of freedom is a kind of significance and value, so the aesthetic transcendence is not beyond the ultimate entity - a concept or god, but a kind of meaning. On Chinese and western aesthetics, the concept of "aesthetic" is centered on aesthetic experience. In the western aesthetics, aesthetic experience has experienced the transformation from the self-discipline to heteronomy, connotation of the concept of "aesthetic" from the utilitarian, and without the purpose of utilitarian and practical. Chinese aesthetic understanding of the concept of "aesthetics" has always been superimposed with foreign aesthetic theory of light and shadow, but there is no lack of traditional Chinese aesthetic concepts, in general the more openness, universality and compatibility. From the change of the Chinese and western aesthetics, the connotation of the concept of "aesthetics" is very broad, and it has to do with what it depends on the elasticity of inclusive and aesthetic experience. Western psychology after mechanical ideology slam the door in the west, to advocate the philosophy of psychology to return, and the birth of psychology human-basis doctrine, they will be people living value and significance to the research category of psychology, will be a comprehensive evaluation of human development and demand, so as to put forward a new theory - demand theory, and argues that the value of the highest demand is "self-actualization". But maslow's in old age and supplement the theory of the system, think that people with the highest demand should be transcendence demand rather than the "self-realization", and points out that transcendence demand is the real essence of people. Aesthetic transcendence, as the name implies, its essential characteristics is to go beyond the word. Aesthetic transcendence is the pursuit of the ideal and value to people, noble and a reflection of the world, therefore, aesthetic transcendence is not to say that surpass the United States, but in the process of aesthetic aesthetic subject produced by an associated with value and meaning caused by the body of the aesthetic experience and comprehension.
Since the emergence of the aesthetic, aesthetic experience has become the center of the aesthetics, or "aesthetics" and "aesthetic" in the aesthetic experience on the key points is same. But in the history of western aesthetics, clear use "aesthetic experience" (aesthetic experience) this concept is relatively recent. Before the 19th century, people use "aesthetic perception", "aesthetic experience", "beauty" and "interest", "aesthetic attitude", such as concept, but seldom use the word "aesthetic experience", is the first to use the concept of bao SangKui, his book aesthetic basic centered "aesthetic experience". Subsequent studies on "aesthetic experience" problem is more full of Dewey, the research focused on the masterpiece "experience and nature", "artistic experience. Later dufresne susquehanna's phenomenology of aesthetic experience, from the Angle of phenomenology "aesthetic experience" has carried on the comprehensive investigation. Bao SangKui et al. A common. Namely the aesthetic experience as a beneficial process of life, promote life activities, make the life satisfaction of life consciousness, people living organisms including two aspects of body and mind, body and spirit, aesthetic experience and exists in the unity of body and mind harmony, spirit meat contentment and joy. Bao SangKui thinks, "aesthetic experience is a kind of pleasure, or a feeling of happy things", and this kind of pleasant sensation is the result of the unity of body and mind. Dewey thinks, the person is living, people's experience is an organic whole, body and spirit, material and ideas, thoughts and feelings, form and material, person and nature, self and the world, subject and object, means and purpose, and so on is analytical, it "includes not only what people do and encounter something, they pursue what, what love, what to believe and insist on what, but also include how people how activities and by the response, they suffered, how to operate and how they desire and enjoyment, and the way they watch, beliefs, and imagine, in short, to experience the process of" only the complete experience can bring aesthetic "enjoy" and "satisfied". Dufresne susquehanna perceptual meet certain physical is the base of aesthetic experience, he said: "the value of aesthetic object in the very great degree is the ability to measure it attracts the flesh. If the notion of aesthetic pleasure is what meaning, said the first, from the aspects of". Aesthetic experience also require the participation of the spirit, however, that if you just give a person with physical stimulation, for art is dangerous. Bao SangKui, Dewey, du, susquehanna people understand the aesthetic experience as a kind of bring enjoyment and satisfaction of life consciousness, a mixture of various relations in human life, human life has a variety of function is an integral whole consciousness, it saves the life activities of the organic connection and function of system, and so as to ensure the rich, vivid and full of aesthetic activities.
Beauty has social attribute, it is people's cognitive level, education level, the influence of many aspects, such as ideology and intervention. Natural, absolutely unified definition of aesthetic cannot exist in the realistic society, the development of modern intellectual history has proved that any attempt to comprehensive system didn't happen, any theory can explain all human behavior, in the end will not be able to return from its conclusions on the basic argument. In fact there was never any schools or the beautiful patterns can meet all the aesthetic demand. Beauty is not from the abstract form of real thing, but when we saw it caused the happy association, at the same time provides cause pleasure sensory properties of things, the first is a complete or perfect, followed by appropriate proportion or harmonious, is striking again. If this is a standard, a framework of beauty is broad, the aesthetic feelings have enough free space. At the same time, the people of a kind of style aesthetic feelings held by fresh into fatigue due to the amount of information, such as the historical environment and the cognitive levels of different range and cycle, the more diverse and open society "freshness" of the new thing is short, live in one week for the amount of information in modern society and life in the middle ages people get as much information in a week, the fast pace of society inevitably leads to many not satisfied.
With the change of the social environment, artists can have this one creative desire and discourse of desire group will promote historical process. When a style or socialist mature and generate landmark work, even if again good artists also difficult to embody distinct personality under the system. Is affected by the scientific development and information age, great changes have taken place in contemporary culture of China. This cultural trend of change in the change of the aesthetic orientation. The change of the aesthetic orientation, make people aesthetic view and values of the traditional, conservative, reserved, replaced by new, open, singular and multidimensional. The contemporary youth pursuit of individual character, more significant, and a batch of post-modernism ideological trend influence of artists. This batch of artists active in the cultural field, especially to the guideline of the designer to show the personal style, with a unique aesthetic orientation leads the era development. Like the end of the 19th century, when the lunch on the grass manet's works appeared in the "lost work salon" this characteristics to challenge the authority of unofficial exhibition, also caused the intense questioning and criticism, while its classical bucolic topics conforms to the time of the convention, but the form is the image of the modern significance language exchange. Monet, renoir, pissarro impressionist painter implanted the picture for the light color and environmental color factors, in order to pursue natural feeling and uncertainty external challenges the inherent thinking of painting appreciation. Since then, van gogh, Cezanne, the impressionism in seurat creation tendency of germination was produced, and gradually mature, three of them think just like impressionist painting to imitate the objective world, and should show the painter of subjective feelings of objective things, they have common creation tendency, and has its distinctive artistic personality. New form to replace the old form, it is historically inevitable for new positions to replace the old. In the first decade of 20th century era of the revolution of science and technology, put forward the special theory of relativity, Einstein successful trial of the aircraft and quantum theory research, and so on, this time is important in the development of human civilization, and the influence on the development of schools of art. In modern ways of records, for example, assume that photography never invented, modernism, must be in the face of the different rendering. Green knight painting, cubism, the bridge was born in succession, such as the coming of the multicultural era makes change of schools of art development is frequent, let a person too many things to see, a novel artistic principle in its development at the same time, another genre was in its time of mature at the same time, the birth of a new form or ways of thinking makes the past form of art history. In 1916, dada became a and destruction, crazy, nihilism, cynicism is closely related to the movement of the tag. It is a starting from anarchy and nihilism, in the form of all kinds of satire and even trick to challenge all forms of art movement and attacks. Almost from the date of birth, the movement aesthetic or it is destined to look at the Angle of art will change people's view, will create new art.
Social ideology of change are the lifeblood of the aesthetic transformation. Intellectuals in the early 1980 s, the Chinese society of spiritual pursuit of yearning for an ideal sense of engagement with feelings, trying to through humanistic way to find a universal theoretical framework. Although everything social, political, and natural areas and make it more harmonious idea has already been proved simplistic and idealistic, but this wave of cultural complex where the s poetic and full of the glory of the rational. Hazy poetry, for example analysis, it broke the realism creation principle of parnassus situation at that time, has injected new vitality for poetry and literary circles, also brought a significant change to the new literature. Writer in the poems in the nature of conscious thought to the reality person, certainly the self value and dignity of the people, pay attention to the express of creation subject feelings, artistic technique such as a large number of using metaphor, hint, synaesthesia, enrich the connotation of poetry, enhance the imagination of poetry. But come later in the economic development main melody flooded immersion in reflection and wound spring come into my autumn elite aesthetic group, industrial society, the development of science and technology and tools under the rational form of art show the modernism tendency, in a sense, the idea of elite, unwilling to confluence with the masses form exclusive attitude towards mass culture is a kind of instinct. Avant-garde artists and critics through art creation, criticism and the mass aesthetic distance, in order to maintain the elite of the stick, so that the beauty itself is a class attribute. Hegel, for people to build up from perceptual to rational, another pattern of main body is his set of "absolute idea". Absolute idea, he thought, after a long development process to reach the highest stage of "absolute spirit", it contains three stages: art, religion and philosophy. The purpose of the absolute spirit, is to fully know themselves, as well as the realization of, return to yourself. In art, it through the image to achieve this purpose; In religion, it through the appearance to achieve this purpose; Philosophy is more better, through the concept to achieve this purpose. It is worth noting that the definition of Hegel for art, art, he thought, "is a direct perceptual knowledge, a kind of perceptual awareness of the form and shape of the objective facts itself, in this understanding absolute concept description and the object of feeling." "Is characteristic of art in the form of perceptual view, because art is a perceptual visual way of real consciousness". As Hegel's aesthetics as the philosophy of art, so he for philosophical definition applies to the aesthetic nature of art, in his view, the essence of beauty, aesthetic activity is based on perceptual, image of aesthetic experience. At this point, he echoes the Kant and Schiller. The characteristics of aesthetic experience with the boundaries between the daily experience is not very clear, and people also don't care for those lines, rather think as long as it is conducive to life activities, make the person feel content and satisfied with daily experiences, can be classified as aesthetic experience. Dewey's point of view is representative in this aspect, he opposed the aesthetic experience and daily experience completely separated, that everyday experience is the source of art, contains the germination of art, but also give people enjoyment. Therefore he advocated to grasp the art must be from the daily life of untapped, must turn to often feel not everyday experience of aesthetic value. Aesthetic daily life "is the new tendency of modern commercial society aesthetic activities." Aesthetic "concept in modern commercial society as a generalization of the concept, it not only involves the field of beauty and art, but also covers the economic activities, material life, science and technology, mass media, interpersonal communication, as well as philosophy, religion, morality, ethics, etc, all in all, aesthetics has fully into the daily life. The German scholar Wolfgang, shi pointed out that in the modern commercial society, aesthetic mostly serve the purpose of the economy, in economic activities, aesthetics become a new currency; truth into an aesthetic category in the very great degree; ethics is turned into a branch of aesthetics; not only material life and social reality and aesthetic at stake, and also about the aesthetic life practice and code of ethics, and even philosophy epistemology, tend to be aesthetic. In a word," aesthetics has become a global leading strategy. Characterized with the properties of the whole society, universal nature, aesthetic trend of global quality experience is a dazzling world, each of the shops and cafes are designed as a kind of active experience, the railway station was decorated as an experience of the world are connected by a railway. People from experience every day to the shopping experience, experience in food in leisure, finally came home to enjoy some experience of life, even the memories, even the memories of Nazi atrocities, are emerging in the field of experience. For these changes. It can also be used in a word: "so, the world has become a field of experience." experience "in the process of the icing on the cake, has become a center of title". It is easy to see that the flood in modern commercial society experience contains too much entertainment, leisure, fashion elements, with too much, the purpose of relaxation and pleasure, enjoy has covered in a layer of "aesthetic" icing. In the history of western aesthetics, "aesthetic" concept in the aesthetic experience as the center. From baum to Kant, Schiller, Hegel, will be the self-discipline of aesthetic experience in suspension for a common goal, is committed to the aesthetic experience and philosophy, religion, ethics, science, logic, apart from the utilitarian and practical, make it become a kind of subjective experience of self-sufficiency. But since Dewey, but for the understanding of aesthetic experience from self-discipline to the heteronomy, tries to break the aesthetic experience and philosophy, religion, ethics, science, logic, natural boundaries between utilitarian and practical, and to achieve mutual accommodation and unity. Correspondingly, the earliest use of the concept of "aesthetic" is narrow, single, pure, qualified, recently was generalized, diverse, vague and broad; First is the utility, not practical, concept, purpose, recently become utilitarian, useful, everyday, pop.
One hundred Chinese aesthetic characteristics research is in the classical aesthetic modernization under the background of the total step by step. Its starting point is introduced the western, in order to study the horse as advanced, by means of international dialogue, the pioneer of science and technology. Has both significant linear trajectory and value conscious history above, but also has obvious reticular pattern theory and system, also has a strong ethnic characteristics and method of conscious reality to explore. Study of contemporary Chinese aesthetic characteristics has always been based on the root of the Chinese nation, is committed to new aesthetic consciousness of the theory. Its localization, persist, traditional fusion, into a modern, international dialogue and facing the world, began to cultural consciousness, cultural confidence and cultural strength of swagger, took to the localization, modernization and internationalization of Renaissance "hard" transformation of orbit. Third, the future will be landing in the study of Chinese aesthetic features in the Renaissance "Chinese elements" tool. In the globalization today, the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the world of Chinese civilization, and is bound to "Chinese elements" as the Renaissance, combing and summary of state media on the level of China's image in implements, discover and arrange Chinese spirit civilization carrier at the system level, gets and refining Chinese verve in the "dao" kernel "body" of thought. And all this, be it when I read it in the conquest of the new century from the joint and unremitting efforts.
There has been a unique in the history of Chinese aesthetics picture: aesthetic thought, aesthetic category is always is the core of the traditional aesthetic system construction clue and the mainstream media, filled with tradition and western, and blending, elite and mass struggle; Aesthetic consciousness, because of the fragmented, complexity and ambiguity, generative, potential, and for a specified period of value function is relatively weak, appear relatively marginalized. In fact, although the methods of Chinese classical aesthetics to borrow western resources of advanced ideas, unique category and ChouYi occupy the main position, but the academic circles study on beauty and aesthetic is based on the research of aesthetic characteristics, and in a linear trajectory, reticular pattern, by the "unit" of appearance, for the value of consciousness presents the history, the system theory, path selection method of the quest consciously, common to "Chinese elements" to the revival of the future. Aesthetic features of Chinese aesthetic philosophy value and theoretical significance of the research is in the classical aesthetic consciousness gradually reveals, from the historical process of modernization has experienced a figure set, dialogue and debate for saving the nation from subjugation hard phases above and new and renewal, and presents the obvious value conscious linear trajectory. Half of the 20th century is the aesthetic characteristics research FaRenQi during this period, weak national strength for a long time, the reality behind strongly stimulate the mind world and tries to generation economist's culture, the revitalization of ideal, make ", "saving the nation from subjugation to treat flat purpose become the common academic background of the contemporary scholars, the 20th century can be regard as the transformation of the traditional Chinese aesthetics to modern aesthetics infancy. This view reflects the basic aesthetic characteristics research of live. Introduces the style of study, look to the west, in the study of aesthetic features introduced Bloch said "distance", set staples "empathy", Ruth said "imitation" valley and groce said "intuition", opens the borrow the western theory of combing traditional Chinese classical aesthetic consciousness. Look to the Soviet union on the other hand, in the study of aesthetic features the introduction of plekhanov "labor", lu the henchard, "said true oneness", chernychevsky said "beauty is life", to guide the aesthetics characteristic research and system construction. Two kind of way to explore both "" saving the nation from subjugation to treat flat, point to the classical aesthetic consciousness together modern transformation, the results for the study of the aesthetic characteristics of made adequate preparation. After the founding of the pioneer period of 40 years is aesthetic characteristics research. This period is divided into two stages: 50-60 s for the previous stage, the nation's new joy, his devastated blank greatly inspired the pride of the Chinese economist pioneering spirit; After 80 s as a stage, the thought liberation of enlightenment, touches an unprecedented expansion of reform and opening up the hope for scholars of academic new roots consciousness, make "debate figure made" needs to replace already faded out of the history of "the" saving the nation from subjugation historical background become the new academic pursuit. 50-60 s debate on "aesthetics" is marxism-leninism dominant attempt for the first time in the study of Chinese aesthetics theory, comprehensive study push statue of the aesthetic characteristics of the Soviet union. When beauty of four tendencies: objective, subjective, objective and subjective unified, practice, formed the theory of reflection and practice, and with practical over it is over. Continuation of 40 years of two arguments, contributed to a social trend of "aesthetics", not only will range from the classical mode of thinking and aesthetic studies purely aesthetic experience to expand to many fields of human production and living, and the depth of the aesthetics research into exploration of the essence of beauty and the practice of construction of aesthetic system, completely laid the marxism-leninism research on aesthetic consciousness from the classical to the modern transformation of dominant position. In the 1990 s is the deepening stage of aesthetic characteristics research. During this period, speed up domestic modernization and globalization wave stirred the linear development pattern of the development of Chinese aesthetics and argumentation thinking tradition, started from the debate figure made phase to dialogue figure "new" approach, by dialogue, comparison, and accelerating the modern transformation process will fail. Dialogue: on the basis of western aesthetes often based on the theory of marxism-leninism on interpretation, correction and deepening; After practice the aesthetes are based on the introduction of western modern aesthetics results absorption tendency of collective rationality passing attempt. The two common opens the sinicization of aesthetic theory system construction. Under this background, some scholars to explore from the perspective of more basic intuitive this SuoYuan, textual research, summarized the Chinese aesthetic features, the constructive work is tangible results. In the 21st century so far is the aesthetic characteristics research development period. During this period, aesthetic consciousness is to own secrets to reveal and construct the aesthetic philosophy value and theory significance increasingly highlight, scholars generally aware that is aesthetic consciousness and aesthetic thought, aesthetic category than the basic concept of the shoulder. The study of aesthetic consciousness, especially in Chinese classical aesthetic consciousness, with one own secrets revealed that about the basic knowledge of aesthetics principle such as essence of beauty, is about the framework construction of aesthetic system, the basic direction of the study about the aesthetics, is an important content of Chinese esthetics research important direction and transition. After ", "saving the nation from subjugation" argument state "and" dialogue figure is new stage of development, after hard "revival" the mission of sublimation, aesthetic consciousness research, China began to localization premise into modernization and internationalization of the fast lane. In the new century new stage in the new starting point, the aesthetic characteristics of the research on the basis of predecessors' hard driving and fruitful results, to regain the broad space for further development. Aesthetic intuition, GanWuXing. Then some scholars reveals the aesthetic nature and convergence, unity, conservative, and ambiguity. Aesthetic has both nature and intercommunity HongYiRan said. Jiang Xi rule tries to seek scientific evidence for the traditional aesthetic consciousness in the history of natural science, the unity that contains will change your disorderly to orderly and chaos variable harmony of the nature of power, is the basic cause of all the beauty of inner. Based on the analysis of the structure of human consciousness that aesthetic consciousness is a kind of consciousness. Similarities and differences of ethical practice and aesthetics and science, internal quality and external function, structure and function structure characteristics of the dynamic change of aesthetic consciousness; Ancient aesthetic modern transformation reveals the aesthetic consciousness of the Chinese four big structure, from the folk, scholars and official this structure integrity, transformation and self regulatory.
After the third revolution of science and technology, the advent of the era of network, to promote the development of images on the Internet. Similarly, the continuous development of television media, also in promoting the arrival of the era of image. Image, video, game, from the static painting animation, from the object involved in the development of main body participation, let people are constantly attract eyeball, heart was constantly agitate. The advent of the era of image from symbolic to the visualization of modern society, and at the same time, from the social aspects of multi-level infiltration. As China and the world communication more frequent, the characteristics of the image age is increasingly prominent, has become one of the symbols of modern China. Aestheticism research will be able to make us in the tide of this kind of cultural studies keep a clear head and not get lost. That only the aesthetic research, we can always stick to the aesthetic transcendence of literature and art, and keep this last piece of poetic imagination for human beings, the heavens and the earth. Third, in the practical application of the theory of aestheticism in particular inter-subjective aesthetic criticism of modernity and instrumental rationality, emphasize the characteristics of fully exchanges and dialogue between the main body to coordinate human, the relationship between man and nature, man and society and so on has important guiding significance. Some theorists call Nietzsche's philosophy of poetic philosophy, which fully show the characteristic of Nietzsche's thought of aesthetic. In the faith, Nietzsche thinks that god is dead, religion has lost the save function of human survival significance; In philosophy, Kant's philosophy that mechanical rigid rationalism thinking mode have been misplaced. In order to resist the modernity development caused by the rigid social system, the birth of Nietzsche's turn to superman, but there is no superman, so he can only resort to art and aesthetics. His superman theory rather than a real idol, as the embodiment of a kind of aesthetic ideal, and the Apollo spirit and dionysian spirit is just the realization of his artistic aesthetic ideal. Through such a kind of art and aesthetic principles, the infinite expansion of aesthetic is to realize the full penetration, the ethics of science and generalization is a ubiquitous spirit and principles of life. However, although Nietzsche opposed to Kant's rational subjectivity aesthetics, but from another Angle to develop a set of irrationalism subjectivity aesthetics thought. That is to say, Nietzsche's aesthetic thought is still of subjectivity, he tried to enter the aesthetic, through the expansion of the irrational subject implemented by aesthetic transcendence. Corresponding to its subjectivity aesthetics of architecture, its aesthetic doctrine is a kind of aesthetic ideology of subjectivity.
Heidegger have long pointed out that the image is not from a previous medieval world image evolved into a modern world; Rather, fundamentally the world into the image, so one thing marks the essence of modern. As the western bourgeois revolution and capitalist industrialization, the existence of art, profound changes have taken place in external conditions, art in the field of human knowledge that the role of the long-term also began to have loose and change, in the artistic principle to return. Since the impressionist especially since Cezanne, the real art is no longer just for rational services, and are faithful to irrational real, faithful to rational outside the true feelings. In this way, the art of self-discipline and the form of language for the commercialization of art, as an independent object. It should be said that this is for the west from the perspective of sociology research and reflection on art provides a foundation. Because only when art for commercialization of independent appeared after the condition of survival and development space, art is likely to focus on yourself, pay attention to its own unique characteristics. Before this, there are also people such as booker hart, Dana art history philosophy, in the study of art USES such as race, environment, time to discuss the principle of art as a spiritual civilization and material civilization of the relationship between each other, but these explanations not formed a complete organic structure, also cannot go deep into the evolution of art style within the law. Because of this, appeared in the 1930 s, critics such as Mr Greenberg, a strong claim to the art of formalism forward against the commercialization and philistinism of art. However, this form of language is the medium of claims, after all, did not resist collision and fusion of art and society, because capital and commercialization is like an invisible hand, firmly to art and society together. Since art formalism pursuit cannot put an end to art and social relations, to explain followed by the enter the height of the consumer society, art, also will have to move around at this time, after the structuralism and structuralism under the care of cultural sociology method, in the view of the western scholars, also entered the art criticism and theory research field of vision. From maintaining rational aesthetic main body status of the subject to critical rationality and modernity of aestheticism, also refers to from aestheticism of subjectivity to intersubjectivity of aestheticism. Human beings have very deep feelings for the image with the subjective desire. The psychological root of human, has always been the scientists one of the topics are discussed. Compared to static text, humans seem to movement, color, not a single image has a keen observation and sensitivity. "By feeling, everything just to be delivered to our heart, and lay a stamp on it. However, the most keen senses is vision", the text after the content of information visualization, people will also be more intuitive understanding of the text to express various meanings, this is the inertia under the psychological impact of a potential requirements. Aestheticism discussed especially the aestheticism of intersubjectivity in contemporary China are of special significance. First, in order to complete the contemporary aesthetic modernity transformation and construction of the modernity of Chinese aesthetics, must shift to the intersubjectivity of aesthetic theory construction. Until the 1990 s, because we have been busy with enlightenment modernity and calling in work, lack of the social cultural soil, the aestheticism of aesthetic ideology in our country have not been able to grow. But since the 1990 s, with the development of China's socialist market economy, the development of the social modernity has made certain achievements; At the same time, our country academic circles to the understanding of the western modern aesthetic rule also gradually in-depth. This prompted we must adapt to changing times and the requirement of social development, from the aesthetic needs of the construction of the theoretical system of subject itself, the construction of the contemporary Chinese aestheticism of intersubjectivity theory system. Only so, can complete the modernity transformation of Chinese contemporary aesthetics, aesthetics with the world latest development trend of world.
Image era have become increasingly close, this is a cruel but cannot argue facts, both in the culture, or in other areas. We can also use a variety of different nouns such as image culture, the culture of reading to describe such a culture of the era, it is said in the same phenomenon, that is the advent of the era of image has become an important integral in the field of culture and philosophy. For the image in the "the world is" the era of visual culture, as the American scholar Daniel bell ・ points out, "contemporary culture is becoming a kind of visual culture, rather than a print culture, it's true facts". In the western aesthetic trend, has two different dimensions: such as Nietzsche, marcuse, foucault, represented by the subjectivity of aesthetic tendency, they tried to establish a publicity in the modern society main body aesthetic utopia, freedom of the individual or society against the alienation of instrumental rationality. As a kind of transcendence existence, its transcendence most clearly reflected in the creation of literature and art and other cultural products, so it is generally believed aesthetic is the most essential attribute of literature and art. But now, there was a kind of academic culture research of new trend, the trend tends to literary works only as its general political science, history, sociology, culture and so on research of a kind of ornament materials. What's more, someone from a "across the border, bridge the gap" postmodern cultural standpoint, from literature and the boundaries of all other popular culture difference. Image object is projected in the human eye retina material produced a series of images. And the so-called "reading pictures" is without the aid of text and simply from the images or all the information is to give effect to understand others. In the invention of the computer marked the third information technology revolution, with the wide application of digital technology makes the network communication are rapidly affects people, become the most main life content, completely changed the way people live, work. In ancient times, before the text generation, human beings have used knotting chronicle such image notetaking method. But after appears in the text, the text has been plays the dominant role rather than be dominated. Language represents the rationalism, while design and all kinds of image conforms to represent the perceptual, in modern times, the text gradually from the dominator "reduced" to be the dominant. Our reading thought pattern, from the text to the image represented by fuzzy thinking represented the clarity of thinking has quietly changed, became a kind of "online reading". In the high-speed economic development today, the pace of life has increased quickly, the pressure of competition unprecedented strong, once again, the people have been unable to "eat slowly", we still hope to be able to get the information in the first place. Image provides people a way of "Wolf", not only can let people understand information, increase knowledge, can provide a more similar to the way of the game, for entertainment and relaxation. Aesthetic subjectivity, see a few of the dark side, the modernity and instrumental rationality and the fierce criticism, in people's perceptual desire to revolt against the rational autocracy has played a positive and effective role, embodies the philosophers and poets in the dilemma of modernity beyond the plight of a hard, so we said it with the nature of modernity. However, it still has a series of insurmountable defects, such as it is still confined to the subjectivity and the interior of the modernity criticism, so it just critique of modernity results without critique of modernity itself. It is still in an attempt to the release of the main body sensibility in against rational depressive, the resistance itself is not complete, it is the aesthetic modernity is also insufficient, why couldn't solve the know how may ultimately, freedom may be and how the aesthetic problem. Represented by heidegger, shiqiu silent as the aestheticism orientation of intersubjectivity. Intersubjectivity of aestheticism with the most full of aesthetic modernity, it is the most radical resistance of social modernity, it not only emphasizes the aesthetic sensibility matrix, but also fully stressed that the dimension of aesthetic transcendence.
The concept of the world image to analysis has been change and are changing situation. Sharp double image can't be unified into a single image for intellectual contemplation. Visual culture seeking effective ways in the new (virtual) reality, in order to grasp the information in the daily life crisis and the key to the visual explosion. With michel DE plug words, visual culture is a kind of tactics, rather than a strategy, because "tactical strategy". Perform a tactic to fully consider the enemy situation and our life in society. Although someone found tactical military meaning was not to the purpose, but in the ongoing cultural war tactics to avoid failure is necessary. Just as earlier emphasis on exploration of daily life consumers from the perspective of mass culture to create his own different meanings in the same way, visual culture will also from a consumer point of view to explore postmodern various ambivalence in everyday life, all kinds of cracks, and place of resistance. Postmodern deconstruction of reality is not in the studio of the avant-garde, but in daily life, just as the situation are collected from the newspaper the seemingly normal but strange things, we can also use the public crashed visual media see the reality of daily life. In the early 1980 s, like Switzerland ` levin, says Sherrie Levine) and Richard Prince (Richard Prince) such postmodern photographer, attempt to commandeer others photographs the true question of photography. In photography represent the true theory of negative, such as "the weekly world news" has become a more respected magazines and other publications about popular culture a main topic. Photography in such a social atmosphere plays a suspicious effectiveness: O.J. Simpson's lawyers are likely to dismiss such a photo is fake - photo shows his client wearing killer, unusual set of shoes, for this, he must find another 30 or more of the photo. Single photo is unlikely to represent the truth.
People so obsessed with TV series also have nothing in common with reality. Soap opera constructed similar situation: a long-lost twin brother reunited with his family almost no comments, the death of a person never means that he or she will not come back next week. In Alfred Hitchcock's words, is not true because soap opera performance, regardless of what it performs. Soap opera is perhaps the most internationalized visual form, it has evoked such as Russia, Mexico, various countries such as Australia and Brazil's national attention. All over the world, the real thing every time be reversed. Liotta correction of Kant's lofty theory has won widespread praise, this is no problem. On the one hand, Kant believes that all African art and religion are "trivial", and therefore despise, because they are with the sublime is a far cry from what he thought. But for prejudice very few people, such as African sculpture and the grace of nails Keith (nail? Ladennkisi) image of the gods, they are created the noble sense of pleasure and pain, and African sculpture is also inspired by the show the desire of the invisible things. "Image" is not just about static images, but a new route of transmission, its visual symbolization and image changed people's thinking. "' figure 'has been extended to include the concept of modern electronic and acoustic, optical, photographic, video, network multimedia graphic symbols to convey information, graphics expression by the original material, single, flat, static, go to the nonphysical, interactive, three-dimensional, dynamic, sound and light and other multimedia integrated." "Map reading age", people look at the picture is more visual and auditory listening to understand things in the world, also means that will become the world's most important symbol of visual symbols, visual way is the most important way of perception.
Specific theoretical construction of contemporary Chinese aesthetics must go beyond the subjectivity of practice aesthetics in the 1980 s, to overcome the thinking mode of binary opposition between subject and object, the aesthetic subject and aesthetic object of the realization of aesthetic freedom, exchanges the conversation to get the meaning of existence, can help us in the study of culture to the aesthetic transcendence nature of literature and art. Aestheticism young aesthetic transcendence, this is actually from the perspectives of philosophy and aesthetics of human transcendence a confirmation. The development of modernity has brought the social progress and prosperity, but also brings many problems and crisis, such as natural ecological crisis, interpersonal trust crisis, the spirit of personal psychological crisis, and so on. The essence of the intersubjectivity of aestheticism in the final analysis is a kind of harmonious spirit. Can give full play to the spirit of harmony, for us create a harmonious, sustainable development capacity of modern society. Social modernity develops to a certain stage after critical philosophy, from the Angle of art and aesthetic modernity and the tool rational reflection, criticism and transcendence, it is no longer the rationality as the ultimate truth, the artistic and aesthetic as the highest value and the most of the existence of noumenon, its desire to aesthetic approach to transcend the reality of this world and settle the individual soul. British scholar John ・ berg, laments: "history also does not have any kind of form of society, had been so focused image, so dense visual information."
Heidegger proposed the concept of "total", but ", "from the" in "the survival theory perspective of provisions, resulting in it still had a tendency of the subjectivity and not ascend to the height of the ontology. Moreover, the "in" is just a kind of natural existence, is this in the main body of the destruction state, it can't achieve real intersubjectivity. Just in heidegger's thought of philosophy and aesthetics in the late, just thought thoroughly criticize the subjectivity, the height of the sublimation of intersubjectivity to aestheticism. He strongly criticized the binary opposition between subject and metaphysical thinking, think the relationship between subject and object is an ominous philosophical premise. In the face of the world image era comes, he strongly criticizes the modern technology power to the person's domination, people call "poetically, and poetic habitation is the presence of each other, is the god of heaven and earth belongs to an organic whole, four games. The god of heaven and earth square game is a way of existence of communion between body, is also a kind of the survival state of aestheticism. For a fairly long period of time, the art is considered to be a reflection of the real world and facsimile, the ancestor of the view should calculate Plato, he put the human understanding of the world around us is divided into several levels, the level of art in the third, and so on, is about dating dating. Since then, his student, Aristotle correction and added to the teacher's one-sidedness, apply logic rule and the narrative plot to regulation role in the process of art in the world. This originated from the ancient Greek philosophy of human knowledge, including art, with the relationship between the objective reality, the cartesian era endowed with clear methodology, that is "I think therefore I am" dualistic thinking mode. Thinking of the human reason as a relatively rigorous system, able to recognize and reflect the external world, or, to the outside world (of course including humans as ethnic social composition) is by the human internal rational and dominate the world know. Western culture (and art) is in the occurrence and development of such a thinking mode. Western painting and sculpture in this kind of thinking mode formed under the influence of realistically representational performance, actually to use visual representation to prove the truth of human rationality of omnipotent such a mission. Social phenomenon brought by the development of science and technology globalization modernity. Represents a racial development process, at the same time, represent the people in different places for generalization of the same thinking, more represents a society and social interaction between expansion symbol. Under the influence of globalization, how to let people can through the language and racial barriers, more communication, become an important part of such a topic globalization, join in the region that is one of the problems have to face. As hull mas ・ root, puts it: "photography is the only 'language all over the world can understand, he in all ethnic and cultural bridge between sustains the human family. It is beyond the political impact - where people enjoy freedom - truly reflects the life event, enables us to share others' hopes and expectations, political and social environment, become a witness of human's humane and inhumane."
In the 17th century German scholastics Guo Kelan button named "ontology" : ontology; Ontology; ontologies
The philosophy of language, the Oxford English dictionary explanation is "for the existence of the research or science"
(the science or study of being), the "ontology" is the branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence, belong to the category of philosophy, which was known as the "ontology". Should also enable us to easily identify in life "what is art" and "what is art" what is art ontology
The research category. Involves the common characteristics of art, is already know something really is discussed under the condition of it is what kind of things. Analytical philosopher, bayless gort, proposed the theory of cluster, is in all art has admitted that there is no art properties under the premise of pointed out that as long as there is a thing with a certain number or a certain combination of attributes (features) of art, then it is high art - of course, Belize, argued that art is not defined, so he is
This "definition" you can't have closely. "What is art" theme is denied to the research of art ontology of "what is art" research value. In fact, "what is art" to explore Angle must also be, starting from the artistic features of just trying to get the authority of one or more attributes as its definition. So art ontology to explore the essence of "existence" is ultimately rests on the characteristics of art, "what is art" and "what is art" is just the starting point is different, and the actual operation skill and follow the path are similar. After thousands of years, human society to the exploration of the concept of art is still in a fog. This is the result of the complexity of concept art, it covers the content is too big. From the diachronic perspective, "art" in ancient Greece was originally refers to the general production activities, then gradually specifically for it
A kind of "rhythm" production, producers are similar to what we call the poet. In the following centuries, we now widespread allegations of arts have been Shared with technology and science in the name of "art". Until the fifteenth century, there is a consensus that the painting, sculpture, architecture, music, poetry, drama and dance form independent of phase difference between art and technology and science. In 1747, Charles bartow named these art "art of beauty".
"Art of beauty" has been recognized, but it has caused "beauty" standard, and the postmodern 20th century school creator's "aesthetic", more let art into a state of follow one's inclinations. American philosopher Stephen Davis proposed "extreme rules: there is no inherent nature, only a series of arbitrary decision (may include when to start, when to stop, etc.)." Be used for art, Davis said: "the only common art is related experts them as art, and these experts are not undisputed or convincing (although they may have a clear but inadequate) reasons to support my decision." 2 as eagleton in answer "what is literature" points out, the original literary works tend to be out of the needs of the philosophy, politics, and "beauty" hang on a bit relationship, they become the object of literary appreciation because the posterity found their art appreciation value.
Eagleton, quoting John m. Ellis said point of view, the role of the term "literature" is quite a bit like the word "weeds" : "weeds" is not a specific species of plants, but the gardener because of one kind or another reason don't want to be some kind of plants. (3) art contains different categories at the same time, also on the synchronic caused the difficulties of the definition of art. Aristotle first only art can be divided into "art" and "imitation of nature's art"; Galen according to the standard of mental Labour and physical Labour, and have a "liberal arts" and the division of "civilian art"; Susan lundgren think art, including painting, sculpture, music, poetry, drama, fiction, dance, film and other nine; Nelson goodman default sculpture, painting, music, dance, literature, and architecture as art. The contemporary western pluralistic body theorists and one yuan
Body theorists, the former argues that different works of art are different things, and have different ontological status; The latter believe that all the works of art are the same thing, the nature of the task is to extract the common aesthetes. On the synchronic art, because of the heavy and complicated by many aesthetes on operation and art theorist, avoidance, still no authoritative standards to the category of art. Has also been mentioned in a bitter struggle with the arts, why not paintings and sculptures are no copy? What is the essential difference between them with the other arts? Most philosophers focus on art, the discussions of the art ontology (seems that view is, the established), or a part of
Scholars view in itself in art activities. Such as Davis's words "art" that all art is art creation process; A primitive world beyond art and a decision based on literature and art is the ultimate, and asked us to touch the primitive world to explain the nature of literature and art. " the metaphysics of" art "itself specifies its liberal. In nowadays, and there are a large number of" art "to break through the traditional, below us
Glasses, once again, let us can't help but ask this complex question: what is art, what kind of things can be art? Predecessors to we ordered many beacon, perhaps along the light, we can find some clues.
Second, the evolution of the concept art
Ruled by the ancient Greek origin, more than two thousand years of the western art theory is the theory of imitation, it insists that art is the imitation of the real world. The word "imitation" originally as a sacrifice to term, as the fifth century BC is converted to philosophy of language. Plato thought "artist heart by the desire to create can be a different way, because he just take the mirror look in around."
 Plato thought the concept of "world" is the real origin of the world, and the concept of external reality is to imitate, art is the imitation of reality, namely "imitation imitation", is the third layer of truth; Aristotle said in Plato's imitation, on the basis of this reason concept of the world in the world to the real world, and literature and art is an imitation of reality at the imitation of truth; During the Renaissance, leonardo Da Vinci said: "the painter's heart should be like a mirror, it reflects the colour of things taken forever in, front of many little things, will absorb how many image"
Once; Dana in his "philosophy of art" also explicitly put forward the "artistic imitation of reality", stressing the need to imitate the "main character" of the object. Although in the later, mimesis has changed a few words, but it always essentially decided that the real world is the ultimate source of art, and "this kind of imitation in all cases the proper method of skills can only be created,
But not prosperity art"
Being (Hegel), the purpose of art is to restore the prototype, art is only a mediation and means. By natural ontology to epistemology philosophy, art ontology has been changed. Although in the 18th and 19th century, the dominant is still mimesis, but another voice with the awakening of humanistic consciousness and enhanced self-awareness started to loud, namely, expression of emotion theory. It down in Chinese ancient literary theory was not a bit strange, from the beginning of "poetry express will," affection "(" the book of history · YaoDian"), to "build" for love (liu xie "wen-hsin-diao-long" affection mining "), to the Ming and qing dynasties "childlike innocence" (li zhi), said "the spirit" (yuan mei), has highlighted the artist
The mind is the creation of the final source. While in the west, the performance theory advocates are abundant. Leo Tolstoy said: "art is a human activity: a person with some external symbols consciously experience their feelings to others, while other people infected by the feelings, also experience these feelings." "To distinguish real art" and "false, there is a sign of a certain, namely the appeal of art."
'levies groce thinks that the origin of art is to the mind of intuition, intuition is created, create the form, the form of the performance; Susan lundgren said: "art is essentially a form of emotional, they show, officially the essence of human emotions."
⑽, lundgren's theory of emotional expression in the form of the cloak, emphasizes the unity of artistic form and emotional connotation, is the modern form of performance theory. Expression of emotion theory highlight the creativity and transcendence of the subject, but still ignore the art itself. So the 20th century, in scientific methodology in the linguistic turn of language ontology art essence, has injected a new perspective for the study of the ontology. In the 1920 s to 50 s, the new criticism, Russian formalism, structuralism, semantic analysis, such as hermeneutics, forming a powerful formalism trend. They is generally believed that the essence of art is that is present in the form of a work of art itself. Clive bei said: "the meaningful form, are those who moved my all of the visual art, the only common nature"
⑾; Yan BuXun Brooks, a representative of new criticism school think: language as ontology, the semantic analysis of language, as well as to the ontology of "centripetal type reading", to get it gets language goes behind the effect, thus forming a symbol of the network, suggests that works of the ontology meaning; In structuralism, all arts, whether the original myth, or film, fashion, advertising, photography, etc., are a form of structure, a kind of human, the function, the ultimate form of contingency. Ontology will clearly art simplified form theory, it will analyze the into line, structure, ignoring the realistic meaning and emotional connotation of art. In addition to the more influential theory of mimesis, expression of emotion theory, form, and some unique understanding of art ontology. Such as "cultural ontology".
⑿, holds that the ultimate art is the realistic social criticism, reflection, mainly from western marxist aesthetics theory. Again, for example, in his "the philosophy of art," Davis examples by the "functional aesthetics" and "system theory", "historical determinism", etc. Our predecessors have made so many exploration in art ontology, finally also does not have a let people satisfied with the answer, then another forte played, think not defined "art" three, art ontology of the troubles and a way out
Doubting the existence of the definition of "art", American philosopher morris weitz noted in the 1950 s, something to be art does not need any conditions; The essence of art creativity, rebelling and wild uninhibited hinder us to define it. In the modern aesthetics to the analysis of the postmodern aesthetic transition aesthetics, and generally tend to be negative to the possibility of the definition of art. The Austrian philosopher wittgenstein thinks that the essence of the connection between the game is not a common; But the game between a "family". This view inherits the end of the 19th century the tradition of "metaphysics" and to the extreme, thus formed the post-modernism aesthetics promoted the "essence" of earlier
"The essence" can be traced back to Nietzsche. Nietzsche's bold abandoned philosophy about the world "phenomenon - nature" dichotomy tradition, to "will" monism. His view of the phenomenon of "nature" is not exist in a lot behind the eternal things, but for some way, or style to display their own things, and used in the performance way or style is also belong to the "essence" itself. Domestic postmodernism on behalf of tao dongfeng defines "essence doctrine", think "essentialism is a kind of rigid and closed, the arbitrary way of thinking and knowledge production mode. On ontology, the essence of socialism is not assume a certain things but assumes that things are off, the nature of the eternal nature of the universal, the essence is not due
Space-time condition varies. "
 "the essence" thought "essentialism sometimes implied a point of view, namely, cultural construction of" features"
The stability and clarity,"
⒂ said in this premise is the essence of often has the characteristics of "overgeneralization". Claims that don't need to define art of thesis is divided into two kinds, one kind is the "essence", they denied art has an inherent
Nature; Another kind is considered to the art essentials is meaningless, so too much work to do is useless. They often, for example, if the ordinary people in a bunch of items in the selected works of art, the vast majority of people with accurate intuition can do, And let the ordinary people in a pile of items selected "meaningful form",
"Human ecology into intuitive aesthetic forms of creation"
Has displayed, almost all people will feel at a loss. In this sense, the definition of art than intuition is not reliable. Postmodernism for criticism "essence doctrine", admits that there is no "eternal, universal" art essence. Art in a certain period will present a certain law of art, art ontology is discusses in the age of the particular culture is still good. Split the modernization of society and people's alienation, side by side art is not always satisfy the desire for beauty and enjoy, in avant-garde art and post-modern art impressions, people from indifference or sharp in the art of figures is not about beauty, but must be about one's own existence.
Schopenhauer and Nietzsche emphasize art is to solve the contradiction between desire and reality of one of the most effective way. People resort to art, in contrast, art, again find itself from the ontology of art. The exploration of art ontology helps us to recognize both belong to the artistic features of The Times, more important is to observe from the era of the human spirit and the emotion demand. Art development is eternal, infinite changes, we can do is not blindly negative, but in the darkness of the infinite pursuit of hard co., LTD.
The present state of the art of reflected in the very great degree is not the art itself or the ontology of art. In the front of a large number of works of art, we see is often a kind of social ideological trend or images rather than art itself. This lack of artistic ontology meaning to explore, the phenomenon of lack of contribution to the ontology language, will eventually lead to anemia artistic spirit. So, this kind of tend to emphasize the current "return to ontology", this point of view, from the perspective of art history might be a little meaning of "history". Art criticism to carry out carefully, should first adjust the attitude of art criticism. We know, the western art criticism is standing in the perspective of philosophy, anthropology, history and other multi-disciplinary do objective interpretation, they involve value judgments. Will not easily to do superficial praise or pretentious. The accumulation of some things will take time and the nature of the history of precipitation appear only after. In theory, to study art and engaged in the activity itself has two clear level:
1. Art for art's sake. For such people, art is part of the individual life, art is his life, such as Vincent van gogh.
2. Art is a way to earn a living. Is a professional vocational skills, is the breadwinner and living, such as the choice of most people.
Points of the two levels only compete but no good or bad, and in fact, sometimes in the different stages of life, they also have a cross, also can have, even emi, such as Michael Jackson.
After has been clear about the above two points, this paper prepared from the philosophical concept of "Ontology" (Ontology), as the vocabulary in the field of philosophy, it is clearly defined, using this concept may help us for the discussion of art Ontology. Below respectively from three aspects about returning to the ontology of art: art education, art market and art, artists and works to consumers.
First, art education
As a city of central academy of fine arts college of design of outside experts, I learned that in recent years, the central academy of fine arts examinee enter oneself for an examination every year around twenty thousand, the situation of the provinces? Random check out two provinces Numbers: the examinee of gansu province in 2010 to participate in the fine arts class specialized test a total of 10370 people (lanzhou morning 2010.01.05), in 2011 in shandong province to participate in the fine arts class specialized test registration number (jinan times 2011.1.19) for 39680 people. Imagine the accumulative the country more than 30 provinces and autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government for registration number is the sum of the fine arts class specialized examination; It would be a huge number! Art class examinee is actually part of the "art" on the exam, the number of people going to enter the "skill tests" even more, so that "art brought" website arises at the historic moment.
The problem is that there are so many students really want to learn art (this article specifically to the fine arts)? Our art education system and the existing organization has enough resources and capabilities to provide so many students worthy of curriculum and instruction? Perhaps the answer is "no", the ability of graduates is proof of that. In fact, a small number of students in school has always been "art for art's sake" and "art is a living means" beset by problems of the two mentioned above. So they went to watch the teacher: although the teacher occasionally talk about "art for art's sake", but the vast majority of cases the teacher is an opportunist. So just make a living "art" of cognition not only affects the majority of the students' parents also deeply affect most of the students. Was also understandable, if art education in technical training at the same time also pay attention to in the theory of art students are encouraged to explore and study, unfortunately, backfire. Because many who took part in the "art" test students' comprehensive cultural knowledge is poorer, ranks as the obstacles in their future study, affect their cognitive level. You often hear students complain in art colleges: "teacher, we don't fall in love with literacy class!" Students, far more than we are to make art, not interested in theory "is also a part of art colleges and universities teacher's pet phrase. How can you expect a low cultural level of the future to be an artist or artists with a good professional quality? How can you expect a no aesthetic accomplishment of teachers understand the results of "art for art's sake" is also a process of intervention of social art? When seen in the TV to "art" on the exam examinee flock together the bustling scene, I think: there are many people this is for art? Our art really lost? Artists should be the social "fur" on the body is very sensitive, have good professional artists will have special perception and understanding of social culture. College of art to create many craftsmen directly lead to the artistic creation of the lagged, it is difficult to create a creative and have a continuing influence. I think, to ignore the cognitive art theory, even if the study art as a means of earning a living, it is hard to be the application of creative artists in the future.
Second, the artists and works
Have a mind of the artist hopes his works embody a kind of cultural heritage.
In ancient China, but those who give priority to with the religious function of grotto murals and temple murals, from song yuan Ming and qing dynasty and the republic of China, the most influential paintings was later generations called "literati painting" style of painting. But it is basically no style and style can be used as the standard, and one of the most representative is reflected in the works of "literati spirit". "Literati spirit" with us in the comments of European Renaissance paintings of the "humanistic spirit" is what kind of relationship?
"Literati painting" works are mostly literati in danger of "poetry", "palace of" creation, "the artist" in ancient times was not a relatively fixed independent professional (drawing) another theory, even in the two song art academies, the painter is office. These people make a picture like the ancient poetry: many intellectuals do reflects some intellectuals concerned of The Times, also has manifested the leisure class more elegant life taste and aesthetic - "literati spirit". Today will think there is a little regret, because they don't reflect similar western artists after the Renaissance of social participation and intrusive, and arousal that "humanistic spirit" of the people and society. But from the perspective of "art for art's sake", which makes China's ancient "literati painting" is "pure", for many people love.
If mentioned that the essence of "Chinese painting", it should be the realm of the literati paintings and literati paintings is not only the definition of painting in the Ming and qing dynasties. Just a few examples: for example Ma Yuan, prove, banqiao, Zhu Da et al. Since the late qing dynasty, traditional Chinese painting branch and rule, three classes of figures, landscapes, flowers and birds, inflexible and rigid led directly to Chinese painting, Chinese scholars of the natural and unrestrained, elegant feelings gone, such as that of tang dynasty "line to water poor place, sit up watching the clouds", "solitary sail far shadow blue sky, only see the Yangtze river the sky flow" and "desert solitary smoke straight, long river down the yen" the pursuit of realm; That of the country, the national concerned no longer exist. The rest is just to show off skills. The most let I can't understand is that now the central academy of fine arts college entrance exam is also in accordance with the "people" of Chinese painting "mountain" "flower" classification. This exam, objectively speaking test is a skill, and ignore the art, because the spirit of Chinese traditional literati paintings are not to distinguish between painting and the content of the genre.
If the art creation as a into a very sacred thing, there will be a process of stick to their beliefs, as well as ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign. Artists from the love of country, love the people and the emotion of love life, dedication. Those who choose the present upsurge copycat sought after, the seemingly have access to, but not in the long run; Instead, because wedded to their inner pursuit and persistence, finally the reward is beyond imagination. Great works of art will not weaken the value of his impressive due to the author's position, in reality, for example, is the king of the national subjugation, but with profound artistic temperament and pure heart touched countless readers at home and abroad (widely translation), the qing dynasty literary master wang guowei asiatics.
Modern civilization disease make domestic artists like art works on the same advertising operation. While some living abroad Chinese artists in the play "live", our ancestors changing the simple philosophy, from here to there, and from there back, running and also earn money. We lost is the soul of art are produced in this way please, if also can be called art.
Russian Nobel Prize winner, Alec savage, Ivan bunin (1870 ~ 1953) in 1917 after the October revolution fled abroad, finally die in Paris. When he is alive to the Russian homeland, few people like him to love the land "love hurts." Another Nobel Prize winner, Soviet author Alexander solzhenitsyn (1918 - present), in 1974 by the Soviet authorities deported, living abroad for many years, after the collapse of the Soviet union to return home. In his book "the gulag archipelago" saturated with strong emotion, is to read, tears streaming down her face. Now has more than 90 - year - old he still love Russia, criticize the hegemony of the United States. The exile, foreign artists living abroad, there is a common characteristic: not because our country is still under the rule of extreme political change their love for the motherland, love the people, and sincerely for the arts.
In our country the current artists to auction the market "barometer" as the artistic creation of "barometer" copycat operations, loss of personal faith and character of the holding, also goes against the artist's sense of mission and sense of responsibility, and create impressive, affecting the process of the human mind works more impossible.
Third, art market and the consumers
In the cultural background of the impetuous, to make the art market took to the track of healthy development, we should target market and the relationship between academic.
Looked from the present situation, the auction price is high works partly determines the so-called "cultural industry park" fashion, and these style seems to exist only in a few limited categories of works, this kind of art is just like goods been compiled code, is no longer a work of art, you can copy the production. From the academic point of view, artificially "build" the so-called "cultural industrial park", the effect may be counterproductive. The spontaneous formation of the original artist colonies to use administrative means to "create", also will only accelerate the demise of the art essence and to provide travel program and "stuff". Once mentioned that in front of the art as a means of making a living to learn or use is understandable, from meet the needs of people's life and promote social economic progress, is also significant. From the academic Angle, however, is considered "taste" and sustainable development. In discussing the sustainable development of the subject, there is a concept I have to mention: kill the goose that lays golden eggs. No matter in the field of art education or artist, or in the art market management, kill the goose that lays golden eggs everywhere.
To invest in Beijing the art as a value-added products are basically don't understand the art. Dealers, curators, critics, collectors, in the current art market plays the role of the chaos. Although academia and industry also in thinking and research, trying to tease out a scheme of sustainable development, but the current art curator "kidnapping" agent, artists and consumers, and even kidnapped by the media, this is the important cause of chaos. In fact, some of the so-called art curator is synonymous with speculation brokers, they run the art market is "weng of the baby for the nurse's sake. Academic circles, is the most horrible some people, touch the foam lest we should miss the rainbow, also went to summon the gills help blow. Do a good job in the market, the first to define the concept of good art broker. Common sense, art brokers should be the art market traders, is the market leader. In the art institutions of higher education in our country, however, there is no art agent for this major, a few despite such professional art colleges, but strictly speaking, the name. Dealers is not simple to do planning, but curator of the employer, they should have the ability to organize to build a team and managed effectively. In this respect, we don't have a according to the perfect course education system and the system of professional training steps of cultivating talents of art market ability. To cultivate good domestic dealers, first, must begin from the aspects of art education. The deepest experience over the years, a word which is closely linked with the artist is called "collection". A painter to sell products of "collection". No matter how to work for an artist to sell, seems to buyers who are all the same. There are two types of the crowd is art consumer:
1. Art lovers
The main consumer motivation consists of two parts: (1) out of work and purchase and pleasing to the eye, think works display or decorative function. (2) for feel the presence of self value of the works by buying, connotation of works impress consumers, think of themselves as soul mates. In summary: the purpose is to have (have).
2. For the purpose of investment businessman
Their main consumption motives are divided into two parts: (1) for the sake of monetary value and purchase, a temporary solution. (2) for the purpose of buying investment appreciation, hoping to work and sell the rate of return. In summary: is looking to sell.
However, there are also some unique deformity gift market in our country, because is not included in the universal laws, so don't involve here. Art auction market is one of the characteristics of the art market, its another characteristic is the gallery as the main body of the exhibition seller group, and they each have a different style and taste of art to buy customers, consumers buy eventually purpose is not to invest, but appreciate. But now many people have misconceptions in understanding, mistaken for auction is the best way to art, and the bidding work of art is the investment value of the best ways. Improve the public aesthetic ability, promote the cultural spirit, this is art education should do, instead of the artist's work, art education to cultivate qualified talents, not only should also exert themselves to do cultural responsibilities. As an artist, should be most concerned about is the relationship between the artist individual rather than work, rather than who is the most avant-garde, who's trends. Respect yourself, abide by the artist's liberal values is the most important thing, considering the comments may leave behind the art criticism experts to do it. In a hurry to write up the article is no confidence artist.
As the nation's largest art museum, China art gallery favored by artists, the most artists would be held in China art gallery, exhibition. In fact, as for the ten anniversary of the founding of the capital, one of the top ten buildings, national art museum of China is a political symbol. National art museum of China and the great hall of the people together, become a symbolic architecture of power. You may not have noticed, compared with some of the national gallery has internal security personnel, national art museum of China is one of the few in the world by art institutions of the armed police stand guard. For nearly 30 years of some kind of subconscious of contemporary Chinese art, is also a lot of important thoughts on such a background, whether it's in line with the mainstream position of social politics, or blindly expand the space of "catch-up" values, led to another important question: the serious lack of Chinese contemporary art ontology. Long-neglected art ontology has a very complex reasons, to discuss about the reason and trace will take time, but it is an indisputable fact. Since the stars art exhibition in 1979, the Chinese art world began mass absorption from the greeks to western modernism, a series of achievements, devoured all the artists, since ancient times, western style are used, this is a process of digestion, along with the process, it was not until after the 85 trendy individual consciousness gradually appear some more. Period and 85 trendy style style digestion, prompted after 89 art critics and artists to think much of the language of Chinese contemporary art problem has been solved, so more resolutely towards the public context, or interventional practice visualization practice, almost not the art itself as an important issue. But the art language problems really have got a perfect treatment? Again into the deep, said don't Chinese contemporary art ontology sense of the word, is worth to continue the research contents of practice? For this problem, the academia has a lot of controversy, as Mr Greenberg extreme art ontology in the collapse of the late 20th century, and then fill in the postmodern theory, the impact of the art art also exist in main way? Art has its ontology category? The art of ontology has thoroughly broken and cannot be confirmed? China academic elite of negative was the attitude of most of these problems. And their imaginary "teacher", many western contemporary theorists have similar views, such as Arthur Dan's end of art, but from the Angle of the philosophy analysis to the collapse of the ontology of art adds a clear footnotes. However it does not seem to be so simple, in fact, western contemporary art practice and without questioning ontology clear or not, give up the deep research in the sustainability of art itself, in the form of the analysis of the language, images, symbols of the complex relationship with the concept of narrative research, media experience over and over again, and so on aspects of aesthetics, still walk very solid and clear, unambiguous. And the expansion of Chinese contemporary art practice is neglected its artistic ontology content, while artists also try to update the medium of language, way of use, are also trying to pursuing new and change, but its power is still mainly comes from an artistic evolution strategy, and to keep with the development of western contemporary art a synchronicity. To a large extent, it is because of the lack of art ontology, practice, makes the language quality, the concept of contemporary Chinese art structure always appear too simplistic, conceptualization, artist technology express know accurate judgment standard is basically for personal subjective feeling and emotional habit, often speak this for granted judgment made creation tend to look at the picture of schemata, or just visual elegant handicraft. And really has the complexity of the creation, the art ontology of further experiments and experience and rationality, language judgment is the most solid foundation.
Contemporary artists, in fact, not only is the opposition of ontology is ignored, as elite art school of artists do not push the ontological study, the practice into the deep, is still in a state of a more conservative, rigid with complex and heavy historical heritage. College, this is the most should be in-depth study of art ontology, but domestic academic art group is not enough to explore in depth, but often seem to be the past, and under an official mainstream ideology consciously to avoid the risk of experimental art ontology, reluctantly into pure technical repetitive work. And art critics don't focus on ontology problem, on the one hand, many critics and curators that contemporary art breakthrough will continue to rely on the language forms, or rely on the sharp criticism of the some kind of social ideology. The judgment in general there's nothing wrong, but because of too simple rough and get rich quick, on the premise of no art ontology knowledge, the so-called language renovation is the pattern of the gold, continue to carry out the modernism has failure evolution of linear solution, or becoming a spent force, or evolve into dazzling parade of landscape; And ignore art ontology, unilateral emphasis on social and intrusive actually broke the modernity since the boundaries of artistic autonomy, aesthetic independence, make the foundation of art lose yourself, in a risk.however, retirement, reversed transmission art itself completely assimilated to document material, sociology archives. Art if completely becomes anthropology, sociology, politics, cultural issues, what is the difference between academic research and social activities with it? The art even why? Art will be eliminated, even without being dissolved also seems to be not to provide any constructive heuristic to other disciplines, also haven't come up with new, reflect value of thought and cognition. Constantly, fragmentation of globalization today, the concept of art itself, mental, social and its own noumenon still need to find a solid balance, in expression and in the context of the see-saw, also cannot lack art ontology analysis of the ring. Now back to art itself form to study and explore, the source of the Chinese contemporary art has extraordinary significance of the ascent of the whole.
Knowledge of the production process a series of known as academic, human knowledge, the first comes from experience, namely by observing the way, found that can explain all other experience first. Around the original experience, through the concept of the so-called mutual connection, all formed the human intellect. That is to say, with the experience of human understanding more and more far away from the original, through the concept of connection to form the human understanding of nature and social work, more and more independent from the material production, become a special knowledge production work. But in terms of academic system, not only including the knowledge production system, and more broadly including the system of knowledge consumption, which in turn will affect the production process. In essence, a series of process of production and consumption is inseparable. Academic system is, in terms of interpersonal relationships in the natural state of academic production do not make any provision, even scholars spontaneously create masterpieces of historic spread, there still no academic system. Now for examination and assessment of the various, as the bottom line of the undergraduate teaching evaluation, with the establishment of master's doctoral degree evaluation, also has from the school level to the national key disciplines and key construction disciplines, overlapping, endless. Judge on the first-level discipline, and primary key discipline; The fight for rating for both, that also don't idle, and corresponding acceptance assessment on a couple of years there. Assessment items, is still more than a few, but such evaluation items, more refined, more complicated. In academic evaluation, for example, requires a academic meeting, not only to hold a national, but also a international, in the international academic conferences, but also in the relevant statements specify how many foreign scholars participating. Is the most funny experience, the author once take part in the international academic conference of a university, as a result, those foreign scholars did not appear, only a few foreign students at the school are the mark of "international conference on". Evaluation have very important one, is how much a member of both houses - in terms of the country, members are scarce species, the competition more fiercely, many colleges and universities at showering recruiting members, even if it is a part-time professor. Member of the fierce battle, limited resources, also held out hope that many secondary level of colleges and universities. But other items are be short of one cannot. So, high level rewards and high level scientific research project of China publication of papers and amount, as well as host and high-level academic conference, has become the basic foundation of various evaluation, and become the departments and scientific research level of evaluation scale of colleges and universities.
Each level of evaluation, means quite amount of new capital investment, can be said to be rich and famous. As a result, a scholar of individual performance, but not the personal achievement of high and low, also the interests of the whole of China's universities and the department of bundled together. That is why once appear, the academic fraud case, copy of fraud scandal, cheats in colleges and universities, mostly adopt the method of roll with the punches, hush, to minimize disturbance, to tone down and delay and elaborate, go away. Secretly, the hook is over foremost kleptocrat hou. The doctor, master, has been certified as plagiarism, may enforce processing relentlessly, once relate to the professor, PhD supervisor, academician, director, secretary and the principal, it can be to roll with the punches, hush. With an example, a few years ago colleges and universities, the scientific research project to get 100 million yuan KeYanFei, as a result, it is will be polished away on the chip brand in the United States, and then coated with their logo. After the incident, cause the attention from all walks of life, but the processing result is very disappointing. Since the project, this crime and fraud have different? Whether money should be fully recovered and strongly pursue? The current academic production, has formed a large and small community of interests, mine, a glorious one, how can use the impetuous word generalization. Domestic scholars for academic system analysis from the perspective of interests to consider, but there is no clear definition; Some scholars do not consider the definition of property right Angle, it did not give a definition of more analysis. Knowledge in the process of production and consumption of producers and intellectual products, the rules of the intellectual property right owner arrangement. Obviously, about the arrangement of the right investment decisions can affect the rights of the relevant person. Knowledge has the property of public goods, so the knowledge as a public good to treat, value to the academic activities as compensation; Knowledge innovation, as a kind of production activity, the limitation on the production process or regulations and the output of rewards that motivate people to spend more resources and energy to put into production. These two dimensions, make the knowledge production before and after, right in the process of arrangement is possible, and determine the existence of academic system.
Engaged in academic research are called "scholar". A group of scholars at department called "academic" or "academic organization". Given more and more people and institutions, academic study and need to pay for the cost by country or society, involves the problem of efficiency of academic research, the need to make arrangement of relevant people and things, often called academic system arrangement. Look at today's domain, in the tide of globalization, from relative clauses that must be followed by accession to the WTO, the automobile exhaust emissions of the two the three standards, around the large and medium cities from Australia snow pear, fifth avenue, Fontainebleau, Tokyo's ginza, Heidelberg and other residential district, to the small endowment books in the whole of chanel no. 5, LV bag, SK underwear, to the TV talk show in Chinese often out of the English in French, and intensifying the study abroad boom,. Academic research party has become the Chinese people towards the world sizeable production department, realize the globalization urgent mood, is everywhere, the department of production efficiency has been concern for people. Recently, from the perspective of the research literature of domestic co., LTD., for a long time since the critical opinions on the efficiency of this department is in the majority. People of the present system of academic criticism. On academic production, build institutions, link and the system is very complex, also have different goals and different constraints, but the research so far has not to distinguish between these links and system, just in general analyses and criticism, always give a person the sense of tap. Definition of academic system relies on the definition of academic. Academic knowledge production, is a kind of surrounding exist between Google and scholar products to the knowledge, a series of knowledge about the process of knowledge production. Including the people engaged in the knowledge that the goal of production activity, in the end, the method of making the knowledge, principle, the production of knowledge that scholars of some of the characteristics and the production of knowledge activities, academic knowledge production ability. Academic work refers to academics in a particular field of research and exploration of the written expression of knowledge. To some extent can be equated to the academic achievement. Academic level can refer to the academic attainments of scholars. Generally refers to the theory of comprehensive quality of scholars, is divided into three levels: one is the level of theoretical knowledge of what he has, the second is that he can express the theory of knowledge level, three is his ability to use the known knowledge to create new knowledge. The academic level and academic research or academic contribution is two different concepts. "Level" refers to the more "ability", a person's academic level in the life cycle in a dynamic evolution process, not fixed. Evaluation of a person's academic level, is the evaluation of his academic level, at some point represents the point in time with a particular biological traits (refers to with others have individual innate differences in the brain through different non-academic early after training with others to reach the level of intelligence and unique way of thinking) of an individual has spent some academic research in time after achieved the academic innovation ability. And academic research or academic contribution, it is to point to show a certain academic level (measured) by the highest level of works of some scholars, composed in a certain period of time the sum total of all the works of different level.
Academic system can have the following two categories: one is based on the academic evaluation means, to give corresponding rights scholars (usually refers to the material rewards) system, its core is the academic evaluation system; Second is directly define intellectual property and its corresponding market as the goal of remuneration system, its core is the patent system. Although the academic system in broad sense including patent system, but the problem of this research can be limited in the academic research of social science, to give up does not affect the analysis of the patent system of natural science, therefore this article does not attempt to discuss the patent system. Academic institutions from the Angle of production and consumption are classified, the necessary of production and consumption of knowledge for further defined. Review of academic production process. Usually scholars in an academic institutions engaged in academic activities, will arrange for your time and effort, respectively to study the basic theory knowledge, reading all kinds of literature, on the basis of using the literature research and writing papers, academic issues after the completion of the paper may be for the academic conference, may also contribute to the related journals, through a review process, until successful. In academic papers, his academic institutions will provide corresponding treatment according to certain standards to give him, the basis of this standard may be his previous academic achievements quality, also may be his graduate school, or other. Scholar papers came out, different institutions or individuals may be formal or informal assessment, his academic institutions may also organize the review, may also entrust the strength of the external review, may fully use external agencies. The evaluation results may be as a organization to scholars the next issue of rewards and punishments or income (including responsibility.it) basis. This is a relatively complete production process. Scholars, therefore, is the academic work of the seller (producers), his academic institutions is the academic work of the buyer (consumer) 1, or is the agent for the buyer of the society. To most of the academic works of producer - university as an example, the university is the first consumer of academic works, its consumption is the academic reputation works, thereby establishing institutions themselves academic reputation, and with its reputation to attract more external funds support, and more efficient producers. So academic works brought about by the academic reputation as a kind of property rights, both enjoyed by its creator scholars directly, is it the origin of the agency (scholars) enjoy and use. Producers of scholars academic works with the quality of its academic works, to obtain certain academic reputation, thereby gets paid in academic institutions to give and therefore further resources to obtain external academic and non-academic. Academic works as a possible innovative knowledge carrier, as the public, the public at little cost can get, so the second consumer groups is whole society scholar, crowd it is divided into three parts: one is the basic theory research scholars, and their free use of basic theoretical knowledge; The second is part of the application research of scholars use free of charge, and eventually to buy goods for an organization; Once again being used by the public intellectuals, and finally to the general public consumption. With material production and consumption of goods, the acquirer university academic works (relative to the company) to buy the works of scholars (relative to the workers' products), in addition to enjoy the reputation of the earnings, unable to enjoy the use of the knowledge value (except patent). And the purchaser of material goods enjoy full exclusive property rights. Secondly, for the scholars of output (output) of the individual, although many literature assumes a unbiased probability, but essentially is bigger than material goods with uncertainty, and what varieties of products, basically university cannot intervene. Scholars in academic activities, the first facing the working unit of the university of constraints, is usually prescribed under what conditions can have what kind of jobs and the pay system of faculty. This includes under what circumstances get tenure system, what circumstance promotion system of professional titles, what circumstance to obtain corresponding salary compensation system. These largely determines the scholars in academic investment decision-making, and further determine academic output. Second, scholars engaged in one study in decision, could be separate seek outside funding, such as applied to a fund for research funding, so the fund research funding system is constituted an academic system which affects the academic decision of scholars. Again, scholars produce often need to pass through the academic journal review process to publish, so the influence is, of course, the editor of the journal scholars investment decisions. Because the academic work debut may undergo a variety of evaluation of society, especially the reward of some funds to bring honor to the scholars and its place unit, further establish and strengthen the academic reputation, so access to a certain level of rewards, has often been university as the assessment of academic performance, a content thus appraisal system as one of the academic system also affects the scholar's academic decision. In addition, we often ignore the consumption link in academic works, there is also a visible and the established institutional arrangements, such as for consumption of the academic works, works of reference system. Especially the latter, at different times have different standard, has led to a few controversial plagiarism incidents in the past.
Academic is the ultimate goal of institutional arrangements, the principle of the same resources at the marginal efficiency, scholars for academic production more effectively to obtain corresponding more resources and honor, and motivate him into more resources for high output; And motivate people to invest their resources to accumulate human capital, and academic production, make the efficient academic potential producers. Therefore, the academic system generally involves the redistribution of resources. Scholar in comparative confident about its potential productivity, can take more resources to academic activities, so as to expect in the future in the competition and get the corresponding reward. The question is how to determine efficient scholars? And in which stage of academic production gives scholar funded? Most of the academic system of ex post evaluation way, namely after the completion of a stage of academic production, to evaluate academic works, to think that the most valuable works of the author for reward or funding. But there are also part of the system is a prior evaluation ways, such as some research funding, personnel planning and so on. Some were way by adopting the combination of prior and after the event evaluation. Academic evaluation generally constitute the academic system of the first half of the link, the second half part involves the allocation of resources. Due to the difference of alternatives, similar academic system there are different ways of resource allocation. System of faculty, such as China and the United States, the former giving scholars pay generally changes as the change of academic output, the latter to enter the life track of scholars, the basic is not influenced by academic output higher base salary, accusing the academic production rule makers, such as the ministry of education, but also not very fair. By the international education assessment unit assessment of world famous university rankings, this evaluation is also has a variety of indicators, and is a and the evaluation of the same. In this list, there are the following categories: how many Nobel Prize winners, how many top international academic journals NATURE and SCIENCE papers, how many scientific research and scientific research project, how many has a doctorate in teachers. Therefore, the current domestic colleges and universities evaluation way, can be said to be connected with the tide of world education, the corresponding condition, one to one correspondence, the root of the problem is from the trend of world education.
Rapidly in today China's social economy, cultural aspects in the process of globalization and commercialization, the generalization of entertainment, TV and had to politics, art and education fields, and even the whole world becomes a virtual "playground". Pioneered by the printer of the so-called "interpretation of the era of" obviously has given way to the TV set "the entertainment time", so as to make profound changes have taken place in people's attitude towards art, but also the value system of contemporary social and cultural background presents a brand-new characteristics. This peculiar transformation project in the field of art, prompt a new generation of young artists in the creation threw the viewpoint to the personal experience of life, and the specific feelings of mass culture. Television has not something new. Bourdieu in the work of nearly 10 years ago "TV" on behind the scenes the operations of the mystery, to expose the public discourse and cultural celebrities, critical television destroyed the rational thinking, provide free illusion, under the democracy in the form of a symbol of violence. Watching TV now, become a kind of life custom, we are familiar with to but by his own experience with bourdieu similar conclusions. However, for a critical discourse too familiar with the tacit approval of the cause for criticism, pursuing new and change for the breakthrough of a work day, we want to pour on the sofa in front of the television, watching familiar with invariable, do stagnation, passive, like a stable longed for day and night life.
However, 40 to 70 s in the 20th century American art, television has played a vanguard role. A recent New York jewish museum exhibition "eye of the revolution: the birth of modern art and American TV" (extension until September 27), based on the curators Maurice berger (MauriceBerger) long-term research, attempts to this little-known history now thoroughly. The entrance, Barbara streisand (BarbraStreisand) in Philadelphia in 1966 the museum of music videos the ColorMe she "rather, punch a hole in the prime of youth Barbra streisand in is full of crazy song dance in the space of modern art, calling for a" new ", "no one tell me what I should do and what to do", "can only be my own" space. Maurice's see this as a pivotal scene, sign with the two powerful forces - TV encounter with the modern art.
At the beginning of the birth of TV unavoidably limited to the group interest and the rules of the industry, however, as a kind of history is still short of unknown, strategies, new media, it's full of possibilities, attract many progressive characters in them. Russian kotak watts (ErnieKovacs) will be in the 50 s and 60 s dada and surrealism art technique used in television program manufacture, make them full of fantasy scenes, moving objects, excessive close-up, disorder of the clips, images of the dissolved, kaleidoscope of optical illusions. Sound effects and mountain dew send color, such as long time of silence, repetition of daily, amplifying environmental noise, objects, friction, destroyed. More classic is Harold Lin (RodSerling) made from 1959 to 1964, 159 series "blurred space-time" (TheTwilight Zone), the story of a chi-chi independent integration of science and the supernatural, daily life and the subconscious, art and politics, to explore, from racism to the nuclear crisis was the hottest topic, is now the British drama "black mirror" (BlackMirror) type of the ancestor of subject matter.
60 s, more trendy art movement won The favour of The American television personality, best results all CBS between 1948 and 1971 of The variety Show "sulley Wen Xiu" (The EdSullivan Show), each set of different stage design from contemporary art movement, minimalism, color painting, integrated arts, The elements in The art of optical illusions, invite The beatles, elvis Presley, The doors to sing in The stage of this kind of device, trying to exciting way to eliminate The boundary between popular culture and elite art - which is accorded with The same period The core of The pop art movement.
50 s, modern artists began to show on the TV screen, exhibition this time television interview footage of artists, from has become a legend, Dali, duchamp to thunder was jin lichtenstein, DE kooning, everyone in front of the cameras show discomfort, as derrida in "the echo of the television writing" mentioned in this paper: the recording, in the usual way, people can no longer speak and think. TV at the same time began to be used for the popularization and promotion of modern art, the museum of modern art (MoMA) in New York in 1952 and 1955 TV program, launched ambitious art YiPingGu erin SaRuiNing (AlineSaarinen) are produced for NBC television networks have the French new wave cinema style of modern art promotion program.
1967 SONY company to launch its first camcorder contributed to the rise of video art, the artist to use television technology to explore personal and social problems. Boston public television even launched the first TV show video art "Medium Is the media" (TheMedium Is the Medium), the exhibition of otto, (OttoPiene) and Alan's providence (AllanKaprow) for the creation of video art. As a relationship with the television the most modern artist, Andy warhol's video works with the files occupy the last room. Since the 50 s as a designer of CBS and NBC television network, the TV programs and commercials actors, and then to cable TV producer, warhol have always regarded TV comment practice ideas and the best platform for himself, his most famous speech is on TV culture interpretation: "in the future, everyone can become a celebrity for 15 minutes."
The Internet today is the power of the more advanced, people can actively in the information ocean will pick, creative interaction. We still are not the same on TV. Mass completely passive in front of the TV, let mercy, enjoy a kind of complete rest, TV which plays the role of witches, ghosts, dictator. Lee friedlander photography (LeeFriedlander) 60 s a large number of empty bedroom of the activities of the characters in the TV screen, reminiscent of Japan in the movie "the ring" female the ghost zhen son climbed out of the TV screen - the film shot in 1998, it was TV DVD popular throughout Asia, audience shoes, good deep in horror. After the content of the exhibition in 70 s, as if TV is not only no longer bring the "revolution" of the eye, also became the art with a serious subject opposites - in jean-philippe toussaint's 1998 novel "TV", the protagonist decided to kick the TV, in order to be kept in the summer vacation write papers about the Renaissance painter titian. Today, television and Art "marriage" is usually not happy, The Bravo was launched in 2010, Artist talent show "Art work: a Great Artist" (Workof Art: The Next Great Artist) is much less influence than singing. From television series made in the 2012 "Gallery Girls" (Gallery Girls) to reflect the New York art scene, the heart has been circles media lambasting no authenticity. At the same time, more and more about social and political topic of contemporary video art pursuit of realism to the television news is hard to avoid in volatile TV news. SBS Australia, by contrast, in 2014, is a reality show "with the Enemy" (Livingwith the Enemy) to position and way of life "hostile" (involving the gay, immigration, Muslim, hunting, etc.) of the two people live together, each spent five days in the world of each other, borrowed from the contemporary art to explore social issues than, there is no lack of again entertainment exciting to watch. There is a few minutes for the TV with the relationship between art and serious subject of metaphor, as "on TV" as well as bourdieu on French television two speeches, television criticism on TV, it is in the eye gaze "with the enemy". At the same time, they also exposed the ideal when the game, the illusion when reality habits of thinking, and, of course, to use all kinds of media to create a virtual scene and ridiculed social reality to describe personal living conditions. That it is not hard to understand why their art often has "play, the game". In fact, in these young artists in the creation of new, both in the content, the choice of media and art style and expression, showed a high profile is different from the past. These new art of visual art, art nature very young artists have in common - "play" in modern Chinese is often interpreted as game play, meaning; In the context of contemporary new culture, it is mainly reflect the young generation today don't custom, the specification will be seriously unruly mentality, as well as to the contemporary culture and art attitude of the image age have a positive feedback. So that some young artists to the attention of a final look at whether their works reflected the contemporary painting some kind of change, to go through such a change, outline is deep in this age of them is different from the past those cultural characteristics, in the creation of multiple means of supporting new perception of art, but also partly shows the dramatic changes in the process of development in Chinese contemporary art.
Represented by television culture "entertainment" terminal will erode the rest of the world. Every seconds to refresh the lens, not only is the eyes have no time to rest, more make the human mind there is no room for thinking. As a result, people on TV to watch is often simplified as one purpose: to obtain sensory satisfaction - it's not hard to find, in the extremely rich "TV" on the screen, no matter how sweet and tender feelings, what a bloody murder, how bizarre scandal, as a host airily "here comes..." Everything will disappear from people's mind. No wonder people assert that the discourse of "entertainment will be on television all super ideology", who also not sure since the birth of television, captured how many "fans" on a global scale, choose this thesis not only difficulty, and at the risk of being criticized. Because the reality is: "play" is not all art today, in simple terms, it is a remarkable feature or style preference of one kind of art. And we also difficult to paraphrase is some "view" or "ism" to each artist's work accurately counterpoint. Even someone will question: in the young artist's work, can't see both for the transcendence of art itself, it is hard to find out the problems of social public concern. And in essence, they once over the power of artistic creation is to exist in the relation between art and society through the art of playing schema, these young artists, which have grown up in a new cultural background, naturally, revised the traditional aesthetic pattern, since the fashion, popular, consumption, network, cartoon and so on contemporary culture under the background of a new image, eliminating the serious hierarchy of art and popular culture, and this trait makes them easily with the generation of artists and art forms the distance between the attention of the topic. There is no doubt that a new generation of artists has unequivocally claim that they just want to the past mode of image, and through the image resources born sensitive and borrow, changed the traditional way of artistic expression. As early as in 2003 when I host "to" exhibition was explicitly pointed out: "the art of steering is historical overall development of the trend of The Times, is also the result of the movement of art elements." A new generation of artists reflected in the daily life discourse to deconstruct the traditional discourse tendency, to some extent is also the needs of the mass culture. And these images of the play, from the beginning of a visual unconscious, has been unconsciously become an organic part of the cultural resources. In this regard, I think 15 young the artists and their works, for the development of Chinese contemporary art diversity provides examples of bold.
Actually, not only with the "play" deconstructs the traditional aesthetic standard and artistic conception, and also tried to passed the test of the new art to expand its youth discourse rights, on the content of expression, they abandoned some basic laws in painting, shrugged off those so-called deep experience in painting; They are not responsible for anyone, more to consider the ideological problem. In their art, the entertainment factors and visual appeal well-respected, popular culture become more... Experience the same in real life and art, which makes them have shallow fashion and power also relish, of course, this kind of blindness to constantly expanding, whether can bring negative influence to their own art, make their works into a mediocre, boring soliloquize, entertaining? Perhaps, we should have a look at distance. Although they are very good at using conscious experience, on the surface of the mass consumer culture to find creative style, but the result is often only to derive some superficial artistic language, is questioned by some critics, to be shallow in the value standard of judgment, make this paradox that a generation of young people's artistic creation, than it has ever been a time pay more attention to form and inner monologue. On the level of skills, from the past, start looking for the possibility of performance in a more comprehensive material, painting is not the only way to make art, let alone in today's technology to abnormal multivariate. Making art is not only beyond the traditional experimental art category, but also beyond the form and the media to divide the narrow limits of art. Try to use "the so-called art, is on the material of experience" the outline of words, will be different kinds of art together, to form their own artistic style. Reference to the characteristics of Chinese ink painting, the use of silk qualitative cloth and acrylic paint to create the effect of impregnation; The precise means of depicting, flowery, gaudy, advertising effects of confused the differences of traditional painting and standards; Use of images to enhance the charm of painting itself; Diluent bubble produced by negative brush strokes to itself, the young artists is a common characteristic: trying to re-establish media and expression of flexibility, and personal vision to get rid of works of art and history, individual and the whole culture.
As a generation who grew up in the TV culture, although has the "entertainment to death" deep understanding, but also lazy to an outsider of existing comment this or how to life, or even simply set of shallow, meaningless mask for oneself, but that didn't conceal the art of thinking, just such thinking has a very different knowledge background. Young generation artists don't think his ignorance from the deep heart's core, is deliberately use counsel to be part of the mass media, and strive to become the star of the contemporary art; Beside their pure, delicate, sensitive, no others, but also full of superiority; The traditional idol, in the past, a hero, or a lack of respect, to say, perhaps this is the best description of the young artists mentality. We can sometimes see the other side of their survival: although the contemporary culture provides them with full freedom, and the possibility of numerous choice, and, in fact, after to break away from the traditional, in the seemingly superficial way of life and conduct after victory, in the new experiments in disorder and helpless. Therefore, in order to get rid of the embarrassing, and straightforwardly expresses the real feelings on the contemporary culture, these young artists means used usually is widely available image generalization of the resources of the type of processing, needs strong personal schematization comfort themselves and self-affirmation. This actually reflects is not only a kind of spirit culture of conflict and choice, also represents the inner struggle and confusion, had to work also revealing his confidence lurk follow blindly. So, you can see this generation of artists in art creation of mental stress and individual responsibilities. In terms of its strength, compared with the predecessors is not easy.
Contemporary art is contemporary art, because it has the experimental and research, and irreversible. Today, a large number of images of the popular game, seemed to herald the coming of the era of artistic entertainment. In western China as a representative of a new generation of young artists, have begun to consciously enjoy visual resources of mass culture, this does not mean that Chinese contemporary art in the shallow and reduced. On the contrary, it creates a new artistic form of motivation, both on the contemporary cultural environment and a kind of response to the real life and define, but also expand the artistic possibilities of development. From this point of view, a new generation of artists in the last generation of claims, in the shadow of "painting is dead", consciously or unconsciously in response to a resistance.
The vitality and the fusion of traditional culture
In the history of the Chinese nation in the foreign aggression and blow for many times, the traditional culture has shown great vitality and fusion, its essence from generation to generation. The world outlook of "nature and humanity" means our ancestors; "Good and evil have reported" is the common sense of society; "Do as you would be done by", was the least human virtue; A feudalism-oriented buddhist "are the standard of life in the world; "Righteousness and propriety wisdom letter" as standard and the moral foundation of society. In such a premise, the Chinese culture reflects the sincere (solid), good (good), and (for you), (bag), etc. The pursuit of harmony of Chinese traditional culture, pay attention to personal accomplishment, can be inclusive, to development, to maintain the human moral, can make people have a positive letter. Although the Chinese nation in the history of aggression and blow for many times, the traditional culture has shown great vitality and fusion, its essence from generation to generation. The world outlook of "nature and humanity" means our ancestors; "Good and evil have reported" is the common sense of society; "Do as you would be done by", was the least human virtue; A feudalism-oriented buddhist "are the standard of life in the world; "Righteousness and propriety wisdom letter" as standard and the moral foundation of society. In such a premise, the Chinese culture reflects the sincere (solid), good (good), and (for you), (bag), etc. "Emperor" memorial tablet, reflects the people worship god (heaven and earth), zhong country (jun), heavy family (pro), and deep cultural connotation of respect that. The pursuit of harmony of Chinese traditional culture, pay attention to personal accomplishment, can be inclusive, to development, to maintain the human moral, can make people have a positive letter. Culture is the soul of a nation, it is with the spirit of human and land which elements are equally important. The civilization of a nation is, the cultural development of the national culture of the destroyed means the death of a nation. Those who create brilliant civilization in human history of ancient ethnic, perhaps the race is still survived, but their national ashes with its traditional culture disappeared. China as the world's only continuous ancient civilization heritage in 5000, the destruction of the culture is a kind of great crimes.
In Chinese history, traditional culture to the heyday of the tang dynasty is the prime of the Chinese national strength, science and so on in the world. At that time Europe, the Middle East, Japan and other places have sent changan study, surrounding countries, with China as the suzerain Wan Guolai toward, retranslation type plug. After the qin dynasty, the Chinese often occupied by ethnic minorities, including the sui, tang, yuan, and other minority regime of the dynasty, but almost all of them be localization, which is caused by the huge assimilatory power of traditional culture. Just as Confucius said: "so far people, since by virtue of". But something from the western ideology and potential of the Chinese nation traditional culture such as fire and water, the traditional culture is the fear of destiny, Confucius considered "dead have life, wealth in the day", buddhist and Taoist thought is theism, believed that birth and death, good and evil have reported that the foreign ideology not only believe in "atheism" and "lawlessness"; Confucian emphasis on family values, and the exotic ideology made it clear to trash the family; "Ming xia bian" traditional culture, the exotic ideology advocating "cancel"; Confucian culture attaches great importance to the "benevolent love", this kind of foreign ideology of "class struggle". The western thought five thousand years of extensive and profound Chinese culture with garbage can't rival, is only to destroy Chinese culture, the exotic ideology can become more proficient in China. So it is the destruction of the Chinese culture is organized, planned, systematic, and backing on the state violence. Since 1949, the foreign ideology of "revolution" of Chinese culture has never been stopped, and attempt to make really "leather" Chinese culture "fate". This foreign ideology with catastrophic consequences to China, people not only lost the moral constraints, more caused unprecedented havoc of politics, economy and culture. The most thorough revolution of Chinese traditional by the cultural revolution, let's replay history scene: Beijing to break the "old four" movement began, quickly spread to Shanghai, tianjin and major cities across the country and even the vast rural areas. In the process of broken "capitalism", Beijing has more than 114000 family property. According to premier zhou enlai, the Shanghai "copied hundreds of households capitalist." The whole country more than a total of about 1000 people copied, exist scattered around the folk treasures, calligraphy and painting, ancient books, books, household utensils, decorations do not know how many lost in the fire. It was a time of lawlessness! Destruction of that age is revolution, a revolution is destroyed, revolution or destroyed day method, lawlessness is radical revolution, was stirring. The broken capitalism movement in full swing, cultural relics, books, calligraphy and painting and so on cultural heritage, have become a "revolution" is the most important object. Beijing for the first time in 1958 cultural relics preserved in the census of 6843 cultural relics, 4922 in September 4922 all destroyed. Today the Chinese are also in for a few of the old Summer Palace animal head can't go home and indignation difficult flat. We have been hated British and French troops, how much damage, robbed the eight Chinese cultural relic, but British and French troops in one hundred after the Chinese themselves do more perfect. Really, this is also. The Chinese the most exquisite ZuJingZong, ShenZhongZhuiYuan, but Chinese is the most sorry their fathers. Gu yanwu in Ming and qing different lament "died", in such a feeling, if unfortunate but was born in the 20th century of China, I do not know as? Why should it? Just look at wang guowei, Chen yinque, xiong shili their experience don't understand? As a Chinese, if you do not come from books, to say that China has five thousand years of civilization deposits, not only some foreigners feel suspicious, I don't believe it. German postwar reflection begins with the younger generation to cross-examine, questioning their parents, the Chinese people? The long history into "Arabian nights". Is this up and down in five thousand, the Chinese nation in the suffering of the top lines of the secret? Here is a list of the destruction of the dead and antiques, who to list so much of the living, living culture suffer reproach and destruction? Now Chinese people knew good fathers, but how many people are concerned about their heritage outside economic value? Who caused the loss of Chinese traditional culture and spiritual values, who is more than half a century in the destruction of the Chinese traditional culture? Forgetful, Chinese people should remember that s cultural relics in the din of "broken capitalism" was destroyed, many intellectuals found elsewhere in the collection of the books and calligraphy and painting are set on fire, or be the pulp. ZhangBoJun collection of more than ten thousand copies, by red guards head to the fire to keep warm, the rest of the paper pulp. Mount experts of calligraphy and painting hung the autumn old man, called "imperial" of the ancient calligraphy and painting, framed countless beautiful job, such as landscape of bei song, su dongpo's bamboo, wen Ming and tong pak fu's paintings. Decades, through his treatment of hundreds of ancient calligraphy and painting, mostly belongs to the national level the collection. He painstakingly painting collection name, "capitalism" 2 words, now only sets was on fire. After the event, hong old gentleman with tears says to man, "more than one hundred jins of calligraphy and painting, burning a long time!" Today people lack of faith, moral decay, but also because of the traditional religion and culture of China in the ripple effect caused by the destruction of the havoc.
China's early years of the eastern han dynasty is the first buddhist temple white horse temple in luoyang city construction, inquiry into "" interpretation of the source in China. "Broken capitalism" when it naturally be looted. A white horse temple temple next to the production brigade, peasant revolution, led by the party branch secretary of the throw, 18 arhats destroyed more than one thousand years of liao dynasty clay sculpture, two thousand years ago an Indian monk burnt pattra-leaf scriptures. The rare treasure jade horse was broken. Monarch rodenstock. After a few years, Cambodia norodom sihanouk named worship white horse temple, zhou enlai hurriedly ordered food xiangshan pattra-leaf scriptures in the imperial palace and Beijing green cloud temple, 18 arhats in the qing dynasty to the luoyang, to an imposter, solve diplomatic problems. In May 1966, the start of the "cultural revolution" is, indeed, in the Chinese culture life. From the beginning in August, "broken capitalism" fire to burn all over the earth. Monasteries, temples, statues and monuments, calligraphy and painting, antique as "seal, endowment," become the main red guards immediately destroy the object. Buddha, for example, the Summer Palace in Beijing one thousand glass relief Buddha flower to the top of the hill, the "broken capitalism", had facial features is not complete, there is no sound. Capital, so, the country is so, even the remote are not immune from the county seat, dai county, shanxi has a tiantai temple, built one thousand six hundred years ago between the northern wei dynasty too live, statues, murals, very precious. Although is located in the far away from the county seat of the valley, "broken capitalism" take the bull by the horns, and the statues, murals. In zhouzhi county in shaanxi province, some two thousand five hundred years ago, Lao tze lecture given to learn and leave a masterpiece of the daodejing floor of guangtai. Said in his lecture "classics" as the center, within a square miles, dotted with more than 50 sites, including Tang Gaozu tang gaozu built for him, so far has one thousand three hundred years history of "ZongSheng palace". Now building guangtai such sites are destroyed, monks are all forced to leave. Shandong laoshan Taoist holy land, peace palace, on, the qing dynasty palace, dou mu qing palace, hua YanAn, setting the true view, guandi temple, statues, for, burned books, cultural relics, temple monuments were destroyed. Jilin city is one of the four great Confucius temple, the temple "broken capitalism" severely damaged. The tang dynasty poet meng haoran has did: "personnel metabolism, between ancient and modern, jiangshan sights, after we had to step into" modern Chinese if memory of history also slightly, sings this poem of meng haoran I'm afraid I don't have a taste in the heart. Jiangshan sites are "broken capitalism" hurricane smashed in the shower, disappear. Wang xizhi wrote the preface to lanting collection of eternal lanting not only destroyed, even the tomb of wang xizhi himself killed, wu chengen's former residence was smashed in jiangsu, anhui province, wu ching-tzu's former residence was smashed, su dongpo autograph's stele zuiweng pavilion, is "revolutionary guard", the words on the stele is away...
The essence of Chinese culture through thousands of years of accumulation, once destroyed is unable to restore, was destroyed in the name of "revolution" of empowering. When we sigh in the British and French troops burned the yuanmingyuan garden of "garden", sighing in warfare that was destroyed by the aggressor masterpiece "yongle", how can we think that the destruction of the Chinese themselves more widely than the invaders, more durable, more thoroughly? Mentioned above are destroyed in the material plane, traditional culture and religion in the spiritual level to destroy people also comparably to religion and cultural identity. In 1971, Lin biao escape, dashed temperature in Mongolia khan, unearthed Confucius sayings in MAO's house bay, however, has ignited the enthusiasm of the country's critique of Confucius. "Gang of four" organization of writers "Liang Xiao" in "red flag" magazine "Confucius man", portray Confucius as the restoration of "open" backward "and" political swindler deceit ", a series of defacing the comic, song of Confucius was born. In this way, the dignity of the Chinese traditional religion and culture sacredness is destroyed, cause people spiritual emptiness. After the reform and opening up, people lose myself in the spring tide of market economy, moral decay, not honest, counterfeit, foreign garbage set in some of the decadent culture. Of China traditional culture be destroyed and ravaged, Chinese has entered an age where a like north koreans "flower festival" age, only a "little red book" can only read a book in hand, one can only see eight model operas, listen to songs in quotations, loyalty dance, every day to ask for instructions to the "great leader" early late reporting time.
After modern China more than one hundred years since the opium war () can be thought of as this stage of the preparation stage, after quite some time (to China into developed countries or complete well-off society of comprehensive construction) can also be seen as a continuation of this period of time. In examining ideological problem, this phase is the most notable at 3 o 'clock: every step of the advance of the market economy and globalization of getting in and for the persistence of the marxist ideology. There is no doubt that from the perspective of the history of twenty-five years is not long not short these three points has its own historical necessity and realistic value, and from the point of the foreseeable future for a period of time, they are also shown in a variety of ways and the release of his own power. This is the ideology construction must face the reality of the factors, they constitute the necessary conditions on the level of social reality. That is to say, with ideological aspirations of theories must be effective response to the three theoretical and practical challenges, deal with good relations with all three, can make its ambitions. Summarizes the contemporary China's ideology construction must face the inevitable condition of two layers of theory and reality, can say with the aspirations of ideology theories put forward their own construction of qualification and ability to deal with real problems both very high requirements. If cannot achieve this requirement but you have a ambitious, may become a historical drama, clown or transient phenomenon, and the Chinese and western ancient and modern and thering is no lack of such a precedent. Of course, we also should make the estimated that the accident of history can improve may also reduce the fundamental change even such a request. For thousands of years ago, people-oriented thoughts is more advanced and realistic meaning with constrained tyrant corrupt officials, but in today's democratic thought has been popular in the world, we can talk "boat" water king "people-oriented thoughts such as neither has theoretical significance, also do not have the advantage of moral. , this is because people's absolute ruler is no longer to consolidate the rule, seize power need to rely on, or "good" a kind of power, they should be the owner of the country and the world. This in today has become a universal general (although there are quite a number of national and local can't really set), people-oriented thought what thoughts strength and the strength to compete with the contrast of reality? Traditional Confucianism is relatively rough theory ability and narrow field of vision and failed to finish the modern transformation of the Confucianism in modern times, and also some Confucianism pretensions to theorists claim too much, since the period of construction. From the perspective of the historical development of long-term, Confucianism become an obstacle to the ideology of these realities, not unable to eliminate, but it must be based on Confucianism fundamental reform, reform and construction.
Cultural relics were destroyed both parts:
1. Emperor yandi mausoleum main burning, its affiliated buildings suffered severe damage, the tomb was dug, the mausoleum of memory objects looted, finally all razed to the ground.
2. Weib changjie cemetery destroyed, changjie temple several monuments have been destroyed, the tomb dug, converted into "martyrs cemetery".
3. Shanxi ShunDi ling have been destroyed, the tomb loudspeakers.
4. Zhejiang shaoxing kuaijishan dayu temple was demolished, tall statue of dayu smashed, head, neck truncation, paraded on the flat car.
5. Buddhism first world treasure, Tibet jokhang temple in the Lord Buddha himself while they are alive far one of the three ICONS of eight life-size like being destroyed.
6. The tomb of Confucius were bulldozed digging, "king of dacheng meng-gua in wen xuan" big stone smashed to pieces! Temple monument was smashed, the statue of unpainted clay idol in the Confucius temple is destroyed.
7. Confucius' seventy-six generation Sun Kong that maketh graves were dug.
8 and county on the Banks of wujiang river the overlord xiang yu temple, concubine temple and the tomb of the concubine. Line continuation of two thousand to today, after "sweep", temple, the tomb were smashed to pieces. After the cultural revolution of the overlord temple PingDiaoZhe, only half buried in the second half the dew on the ground of stone lions.
9. In the storms sweeping, huo qubing HuoLing were also suffered. Joss sticks, extinguishers are rotten, the statue of huo qubing swept away.
10. The Summer Palace, the sea smashed wisdom, buddhist incense Buddha was destroyed.
11. Wang yangming Confucian temple and sing man male shrine two groups of buildings including the statue of wang yangming, all in the cultural revolution was damaged.
12. The new party secretary of the ancient city of taiyuan three fire, the first one is at the temple. The city's one hundred and ninety temple sites, in addition to a dozen can retain, all destroyed. He commanded, more than one hundred archeological sites to destroy all in one day. Shanxi museum curator arrived aromatic Lin temple, just pick up a pack of clay sculpture head back.
13. Medical sage the statue of zhang zhongjing was destroyed, grave pavilion, stone smashed, "zhang zhongjing memorial" exhibits were looted. "The medical sage temple" no longer exists.
14 in henan nanyang zhuge liang's "various ge hermitage" (also known as temple of marquis) "eternal lines", "the emperor premier of han three gu", "military strategy" three Shi Fang and shaping of statues, temple in years of 18 coloured glaze lohan all destroyed, house decorations smashed, the qing emperor kangxi in the collection of the "longgang ambition", "loyal Wu Zhi" burn wood version.
15. Hanzhong mian county "ancient dingjun" tablet, also because zhuge liang was a part "landlord" and was damaged.
16. SAN wang xizhi's tomb and book covers an area of 20 mu of Kim dinh almost all damaged, only right army shrine first few strains with cooper, one thousand books st become lost the spirit of place.
17. Shape sontzen gampo and princess wencheng princess wencheng was personally presided over the statue, sleep temple was laid, be destroyed.
18. Hefei people handed down protection, the tomb of the martyrs "bao zheng" year after year, also destroyed.
19. Henan tangyin middle school students will be the statue of yue fei and others, bronze, qin GUI, such as "five camarilla" kneel like iron, along with all previous dynasties pass under the stone inscription "sweep".
20. The oldest classic one thousand jiangnan building hangzhou west lake, lingyin temple, premier zhou enlai sent for soldier pile base, and machine gun in red guards to prevent damage, is still not a part of the temple stone by the red guards over the wall into the temple destroyed.
21. Hangzhou revolutionary youth failed YueMiao, even the grave of yue fei plane upside down. Burnt YueWuMu bone jan gray.
22. We make gump benefited the genghis khan mausoleum of grasslands smashed a mirror before.
23. Zhu yuanzhang huge tomb tablet were pulled down; Stone horse of golem was blown with dynamite lack the arm little leg; Emperor, either.
24. God Ming wanli and empresses relics excavated from Beijing dingling, wan li wears a dragon robe skeleton hanging in a tree of resin, and then queen bones burn together.
25. Ming si zong emperor chongzhen hanged himself jingshan locust tree was sawing; New strains of existing for later replantation.
26. The ends of the earth hainan island, Ming yu hai rui's grave was smashed, generation of official's bones were paraded dug up.
27. Hubei jiangling phase by red guards smashed up the grave of zhang juzheng, burned bones.
28. Beijing city Yuan Chonghuan tomb, be into the ground.
29. Liping hometown of burial is late Ming yu He Teng dumpling, his in the ancestral temple of Buddha was swept away, leaving a man the most proud of and liping He Teng dumpling tomb dug.
30. Wu chengen's former residence under the river in jiangsu huaian county town of copper alley. His house is not big, watching operas.it comprises three courtyards, south to the sitting room, in the den, north to the bedroom. For hundreds of years, had many people admire him here to mourn the former residence and his tomb. But now "journey to the west" become "seal, endowment," (feudalism, capitalism and revisionism) in the "letter", oh's former residence is "destroyed in ruins."
31. The red guard guards dug grave, pu song-ling teacher, really poor, pu song-ling's tomb in addition to the hands of a tube in the dry pipe, head of the stacks them, only four ones. The body was destroyed and their PuShi ones, left in the wild.
32. The wu ching-tzu memorial was built in 1959 during the cultural revolution being razed.
33. The red guards in the teacher led shandong guan school, break open the grave of eternal righteousness gai wu hsun, excavated its bones, lift to parade, public criticism after burn to ashes.
34. Zhang zhidong's tomb was digging. Zhang is an official, there was no point in the tomb treasures, red guards will zhang couple has not yet been rotting corpses hanging in a tree. Zhang did not dare to accept corpse, later generations as a corpse hanging in a tree time, until eaten by dogs.
35. Beijing suburbs EnJiZhuang buried have managment, li3 lian2 ying's tomb, the court of the two main digging the grave only the skull, not see corpses, garment inside is full of jewelry, after missing.
36. Henan anyang county Ming tomb of u kao-suej king Zhao Jian destroyed by digging.
37. The heihe river county in heilongjiang province have a general "grave", "because belong to Kings and princes, and badly damage.
38. The song dynasty poet and Lin jing's tomb is also destroyed.
39. Zhang binglin, Xu Xilin, qiu jin, in the late qing dynasty and even the "Yang Naiwu and Chinese cabbage" errors of Yang Naiwu tomb, all in "swept through all kinds of chanting made sacrifices.
40. A young school teacher led a group of junior high school students to "let the royalists leader out punishment," said, digging kang youwei's tomb, tied the rope dragged through the streets on his bones. The revolutionary guard while dragging bone parade also flay the bone, as if attached to the bone believe kang soul. Swim street, kang's head was sent to the label of "Qingdao rebelled exhibition", wrote on the label: "the head of China's biggest royalists kang".
41. The xikou in fenghua county, zhejiang province town of Chiang kai-shek, the former residence of his birth mother's tomb dug by Shanghai college students led by ningbo middle school students, the remains and tombstone was thrown into the woods.
42. Nanzhang county for the anti-japanese star built his male shrine, zhang zhang cenotaph and three jinianting were destroyed.
43. The battle of Shanghai from the first of "eight hundred strong men" -- hsieh chin-yuan tomb excavated by the red guards.
44. The launch of the Sian incident general Yang hucheng, stop the communist suppression policy, the national government, have to the Chinese communist party, the kuomintang is executed, is still the red guards in the eyes of the kuomintang reactionaries, the tomb and tombstones are smashed up.
45. The flame mountain near turpan, xinjiang thousand-buddha grottoes murals, have been Russia, Britain, Germany and other greedy businessmen DaoGe, sold to the west. But that shipped abroad murals, after all, by the museum collection is not destroyed. Broken capitalism and the Chinese have done is focused on a "broken" word: will the rest of the murals of the characters in the hollowed eyes, or simply rub murals with yellow water in a big mess, do you make those paintings become waste.
46. Shanxi yuncheng museum is guandi temple. Because yuncheng is the birthplace of guan yu, the repair and maintenance are especially well protected. That for up to six meters in front of the stone lions, perhaps the largest in the country. Now, that the lion was crushed limb fracture, beyond recognition. The five cubs of the lioness body smashed into debris.
47. The anhui province di county Confucian temple, dao, cornices, newborn dragon, tiger, lion, elephant, aojiang pastel reliefs are exquisite arts and crafts. House act the role of relief in the cultural revolution were destroyed. After the cultural revolution tens of thousands of repair of provincial, county, has not yet fully recovered.
48. Shandong laiyang temple, dacheng hall dao, cornices stone, magnificence... During the cultural revolution, dacheng hall was torn down.
49. One of the four great Confucius temple of jilin city, the temple was badly damaged in the broken capitalism, wasted years, five years after the cultural revolution to repair.
50. The monk in the tang dynasty praised zen knot LuAnHui hanshan county huashan, the disciple to the mountains called praised zen after death. Song wang anshi visit the mountain, as a "swim praised zen mountain", praised zen mountain known. As a "capitalism", praised zen mountain size two tower was bombed.
51. One of the country's largest Taoist holy land Lao tze lecture stations way pavilion and around nearly destroyed.
52. The song dynasty big literary giant of ouyang xiu's via another song dynasty zuiweng pavilion, su dongpo calligraphy, sharpening the erection in chuhe county anhui post Ya foothills were ouyang xiu composition zuiweng pavilion, has nearly one thousand years. To the revolutionary monuments, the player will not only break down, also seriously the SUS 'handwriting on the stone chisel to nearly half. Zuiweng pavilion side in past dynasties in the collection of the calligraphy and painting more be rifled, since no one is known by its whereabouts.
53. Guizhou province town far qinglong county national key cultural relics protection units inside the hole all Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism three veneration as were broken, now the only remaining available.
54. The place such as guangxi guilin xishan stone-carving, folded brocade hill cliff carved stone Buddha head were smashed up.
55. Zhuhai PaiFangQun Chen Fangmei creek, original three, now only two, on the right side of a cattle by the red guards during the cultural revolution and tractor pull down, already can't prove that given by the people, it is said that the red guards to pull down two other memorial arch, river "meixi river" villagers sitting under the memorial arch, the red guards to stop.
56 sihanouk to come to China, want to go to the white horse temple to see China's most famous ancient sculptures eighteen arhats, results have been hit off, is premier zhou involed in shanxi HuaYan temple under the ocean's tear open come down to pretend to be!
57. All know about dismantling of the ancient city walls in Beijing, but who knows what is celebrating shou temple towers? Beijing's first imperial temples temple, two more than 800 years of ancient towers, nothing left!
Culture is the soul of a nation, it is with the spirit of human and land which elements are equally important. The civilization of a nation is, the cultural development of the national culture of the destroyed means the death of a nation. Those who create brilliant civilization in human history of ancient ethnic, perhaps the race is still survived, but their national ashes with its traditional culture disappeared. China as the world's only continuous ancient civilization heritage in 5000, the destruction of the culture is a kind of great crimes. "Pangu separated heaven and earth", "nuwa created man", "shen nong tasted grass bouquet", "changjie word", laid the initial god spread culture. "People method, method of day, day tao, tao natural", into the unity of nature and Taoism culture veins; "The university way, in clearly," more than two thousand years ago Confucius was staying pavilion, "righteousness and propriety wisdom letter" as the representative of the Confucian thoughts and society. In the first century, "compassion" of shakyamuni Buddha eastward movement, more extensive and profound Chinese culture. Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism three hand in photograph reflect, to achieve remarkable brilliance in tang period. Unlike law the rigid constraints, cultural constraints are flexible. To law enforces punishment after a crime, and culture of moral education is plays the role of crime prevention. A society's morality is often embodied through culture. The traditional culture of ideology and national potential foreign ideas such as fire and water, so its cultural destruction is organized, planned, systematic, and backing on the state violence. Since 1949, the foreign ideology of "revolution" of Chinese culture has never been stopped, and attempt to make really "leather" Chinese culture "fate". This foreign ideology with catastrophic consequences to China, people not only lost the moral constraints, more caused the political, economic and cultural unprecedented havoc.
Today the Chinese so-called "Christmas" is only a kind of fashion of young people love, while the nominal go party, a carnival, actually have nothing to do with religion. Besides, Christian didn't destroy the Chinese traditional culture, it's a spirit of love and tolerance than some not religious "cult" is ten million times better. So, the Chinese people for Christmas is also the embodiment of the multicultural, can to a certain extent, have the effect of resisting the cultural despotism. As a country's economic, political, military and other aspects of the construction need to seriously study and long-term planning, ideological construction also need to look at, the system design of rational, this is one is necessary to have the awareness of modern national country. For contemporary China, there has always been in the ideological area big, small or implicit or explicit, at arm's length all sorts of problems and crisis. The contemporary Chinese ideological contradictions, the grim situation, need to further study and fundamental change. Based on this awareness, in the new century our country relatively relaxed political environment and speech, some scholars in contemporary China's ideology construction put forward a lot of paper. Frankly speaking, there are some old, because of the contents view of flat vulgar without too much practical significance and theoretical value, but also some novel shows some strange place, worthy of our attention and thinking. Here, I would like to choose Mr Kang in recent years, some of the paper as an example to make some discussion, and on the basis of the discussion puts forward a new thought of solution. Ideology, the basic rules and prerequisite for legality and legitimacy and argues for a national political power and defense theories, associated with this, of course it also has integrated society, the role of solidarity, normal life. Therefore, it is quite clear two layer functions, a layer is to support the regime, a layer is organized society. It is for the two layer functions of regulation, the theories must be in a great extent for the state and society to accept. Lack of acceptance of the former, it is only a folk thought and cannot become a national ideology; The lack of the latter, it will be discounted for state support functions, and will eventually be abandoned. A set of theories if you want to accept as ideology, state and society is determined by a variety of contingency and necessity. So-called accidental conditions refers to the it environment of space and time and the margin between the political power of the world, due to containing a lot of, almost impossible to measure individual, group, and details such as history, geography factors, in general, we can only in the very great degree to attribute this to historical contingency. The so-called necessary conditions, is the major ideological theory itself logic and explanatory power and the correlation between it and the country society. The theories on the logic should be relatively self-contained and deep, and can well explain the survival of people, especially the national awareness, international awareness and historical awareness, and in this sense to get support for the state and society. , of course, no matter in theory or in practice is quite clear, accidental conditions and necessary conditions can't completely separate, but quite closely together. We are here just for understanding and discusses the distinction between convenience. Moreover, under the condition of different times and countries, between them there are reciprocal shifting phenomenon. In other words, the connecting zone between them is quite wide and commonly much change and fuzzy. Specific to the contemporary China, a kind of ideology has become ambitious theories will no doubt also must satisfy the above two conditions. Due to accidental condition not easy to grasp, from the perspective of speculative here we analysis focuses on the necessary conditions.
Added in thousands of years of civilization, on the basis of modern times since the large-scale introduction of west, make ability and academic thought in China reached a considerable level. Justice, freedom, democracy and other universal ideas become the basic idea of the broad masses of the people, as their basic starting point to analyze and perceive life and measuring scale. These ideas are accepted natural there is a long process, and the most critical in this process, the most in-depth time should be 25 years since reform and opening up. In contemporary China, with ideological aspirations of theories must accept ability and academic thought and basic concept of inspection, the theory quality and the thought idea must conform to the basic requirements of the public and academic circles. This is the necessary condition of theory in the construction of ideological level. Contemporary Chinese society in the "Chinese characteristics" of the socialist market economy, under the banner of the blustery, the mammoth to spread out the history of the reform and opening up in China. About a quarter of a century of Chinese history, people have this variety of judgment and evaluation, I will understand as "contemporary Chinese" the history of the most recent period of time. On this date, because only in this period of time in the true sense of modernization, then in our ancient land mass, deeply.