格林伯格的早期思想深受马克思（Karl Marx）和霍夫曼（Hans Hofmann）的影响。格氏对马克思主义理论的研究，使他对前卫艺术发生了兴趣，因为前卫艺术暗示着，抽象是一种革命的形式，远离美国叙事性绘画的流行趣味。但对格林伯格来说，更重要的影响来自德国艺术家与美术教育家汉斯·霍夫曼。1938年至39年间，格林伯格参加了霍夫曼的夜校。在那里，霍夫曼强调了绘画的形式质量——扁平画布上的色彩、线条、平面及各种形状的“推-拉关系”。在格氏40与50年代的批评中，他发展了这些观念，将它们锻造成一种独特的批评工具。40年代中叶，格林伯格是第一个支持纽约画派的抽象艺术家如杰克逊·波洛克（Jackson Pollock）、威廉·德·库宁（Willem deKooning）、罗伯特·马瑟韦尔（Robert Motherwell）及大卫·史密斯（David Smith）的人。其时，不要说美国民众尚未认识到这些前卫艺术家的意义，就是极大多数美国批评家也都不认为这些纽约艺术家有什么重要性。只有极少数批评家支持这批艺术家，格林伯格是他们当中最坚决的一位。请读者留意这一历史时刻，格林伯格支持美国抽象表现主义艺术家之时，冷战是否已经开始了？1950年12月，格林伯格加入美国中情局（CIA）旗下的“美国文化自由委员会”（AmericanCommittee for Cultural Freedom），这是一个总部设在巴黎的“世界文化自由委员会”的分枝机构。这一史实，成了后人攻击他是美国外交政策的御用政客这一不实之辞的主要来源。然而，迄今为止，没有任何证据表明格林伯格的批评写作直接地受命于该委员会，或间接地受命于中情局，也没有任何证据表明作为美国当时最有影响的美术机构——纽约现代艺术博物馆（MOMA）——卷入了美国政府的冷战。那么，格林伯格之加入“美国文化自由委员会”该作何解释？
奥布赖恩O’Brian，是格林伯格四卷本文集的编者。他既不是格林伯格的赞美者，也不是格林伯格的诋毁者，而是较为客观、中立的学者。奥布赖恩认为，这一举动只能被解释纽约左派知识分子普遍的政治转向的一种象征。对共产主义（它在现实中是以斯大林的社会主义模式出现的）普遍感到失望的这些左派知识分子（他们曾经是狂热的马克思主义者），只能通过这种“站队”的象征性举动来表明自己对自由的捍卫。自从用法语写作的加拿大人赛尔热·居尔博特（Serge Guilbaut）《纽约如何盗窃现代艺术的观念》（How New YorkStole the Idea of Modern Art)发表以来，美国的抽象表现主义艺术家们就饱受“冷战战士”（cold warrior）之饥，仿佛曾经无人理睬的前卫艺术家们，再度成了人人喊打的过街老鼠。然而，即便是这位带有强烈的法国文化沙文主义情绪的居尔博特先生，也还能在他的书里开宗明义指出：“我的意图并不是想要将这一前卫运动的艺术家们说成具有明确的政治动机，也不是想要暗示，他们的行为乃是某种阴谋的产物。”（SergeGuilbaut , How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art: AbstractExpressionism, Freedom and the Cold War, Chicago and London: University ofChicago Press, 1983, p.3）讽刺的是，后人不将这位始作俑者的观点篡改为阴谋论，是不会感到过瘾的。上世纪末，主持过一项关于“美国中情局与文化冷战”的大规模调查工作的作者弗朗西丝·桑德斯（FrancesStonor Saunders），曾采访了1954至1961年间担任纽约现代艺术博物馆馆长助理的瓦尔多·拉斯姆森（WaldoRasmussen，1961年以后任馆长）。
拉斯姆森告诉这位作者：有一系列文章在讲现代艺术博物馆的国际展览计划与文化宣传间的关系；有些甚至暗示这一计划与中情局有关。由于我那几年正好在那儿工作，我能说，这彻头彻尾是假的。国际计划的重点是有关艺术的——它无关乎政治，无关乎宣传。事实上，对一家美国博物馆来说，避开文化宣传的暗示，是极其重要的；正是出于这一理由，跟美国大使馆或美国政府官员联系并不总是有利的，因为那会暗示这些展览意在宣传，而事实上它们却不是。（FrancesStonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War,London, Granta Books, 1999, p. 268）。末了，即使是这位竭力想要曝料的作者桑德斯小姐，也不得不承认：“没有初步的证据证明中情局与现代艺术博物馆之间有过正式协议。”（“There is noprima facie evidence for any formal agreement between the CIA and the Museum ofModern Art”, Ibid., p.264）然而，全世界的“憎恨学派”（借用哈洛德·布鲁姆[HaroldBloom]的用词）并不会就此罢休。桑德斯小姐就明目张胆地说：“事实上，它（按指正式协议）根本没有必要。”但是，正如美国学者阿尔温·桑德勒（IrvingSandler）指出的那样：对全世界的美国抽象表现主义及格林伯格的诋毁者而言，提供证据却有必要。（另一项反驳中情局推广美国抽象表现主义这一论点的、最为晚近的大规模调查工作是由大卫·考特[DavidCaute]做出的，见他的The DancerDefects: The Struggle for Cultural Supremacy During the Cold War, Oxford,Oxford University Press, 2003。）格林伯格既不是学美术史出身，也不是美术史教授，而是一个海关职员；他所从事的艺术批评，是一种革命政治。克拉克的社会史理论来自于马克思主义，反对机械社会反映论，强调表象，待在历史唯物主义的轨道内，一切都取决于如何去描述任何一组表象与被马克思称 “社会实践”的总体之间的关联。只有当同时认识到，表象的世界并非严丝合缝地符合“表意实践”的集合或系统时，上面勾勒出来的社会活动的概念才能得到维持。
然而，正是绘画表面那不可回避的平面性的压力，对现代主义绘画艺术据以批判并界定自身的方法来说，比任何其他东西都来得更为根本。因为只有平面性是绘画艺术独一无二的和专属的特征。绘画的封闭形状是一种限定条件或规范，与舞台艺术共享；色彩则是不仅与剧场，而且与雕塑共享的规范或手段。由于平面性是绘画不曾与任何其他艺术共享的唯一条件，因而现代主义绘画就朝着平面性而非任何别的方向发展。（Ibid.,p.756）这些构成了《现代主义绘画》的主要论辩。随着波普艺术（Pop Art）在20世纪60年代的兴起，格林伯格的形式主义方法就不再管用了。波普艺术建立在赤裸裸的概念智慧（而不是艺术家的感觉或灵感上），又源于“低级艺术”，它们成了格林伯格形式主义理论的反题。作为对波普艺术的回应，格林伯格1964年举办了“后涂绘抽象”（“PostPainterly Abstraction”）展。在展览目录导论中，他拓展了自己的理论原理，认为展示开放性、赋形的线条清晰性以及明亮甚至单色调的绘画，乃是他在《现代主义绘画》一文中曾经勾勒出来的那个艺术的形式史的自然演进。格林伯格独创了“后涂绘抽象”（Post-PainterlyAbstraction）这一术语，用以区别抽象表现主义或涂绘抽象（按：格林伯格的“后涂绘”一词，来自沃尔夫林的Malerisch[涂绘]。沃氏用它来指称与“线描”相对的绘画特质，用以界定区别于古典艺术的巴洛克艺术。因此在沃氏那里，文艺复兴盛期的古典绘画是线描的，而巴洛克绘画却是涂绘的。 ClementGreenberg, “Post-painterly Abstraction”, in Clement Greenberg, Collected Essays and Criticism,vol 4, ed.,John O'Brian, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1993。
列奥·施坦伯格Leo Steinberg,（美国，1920-）是宾夕法尼亚大学本杰明·富 莱克林讲席教授，著名文艺复兴艺术史专家，也是最杰出的艺术批评家之一。著有《文艺复兴艺术及现代健忘中的基督的性征》、《米开朗琪罗最后的油画》、《莱 奥纳多永远的最后晚餐》、《遭遇劳森伯格》、《另类准则》等。施坦伯格主要是作为一个文艺复兴艺术的研究专家，来介入当代艺术的批评的。他的基本路径是由 伟大的艺术史家潘诺夫斯基（Panofsky）所开创的图像学方法。尽管他对文艺复兴及其后的西方绘画中有关基督性征的图像学研究，激起了争议，但他的影响力从以下事实可见一斑：1983年夏，美国当代最著名的艺术期刊之一《十月》（October）用了整整一期的篇幅，来讨论他的著作《文艺复兴艺术及现代健忘中的基督的性征》。这一背景有助于我们理解，图像学是如何正好构成作为美国50、60年代主流艺术史与艺术批评模式的形式主义的对立面的。《另类准则》一文是施坦伯格批评思想的纲领，后来成为同名批评文集的书名（牛津大学出版社，1972年初版；芝加哥大学出版社，2007年新版）。该文在简短的序言后，分为8个部分。但从其主旨来看，其实可以分为上下两篇。上篇是破，下篇是立。上篇主要欲破除以格林伯格为代表的美国形式主义批评思想，下篇则提供他自己的“另类准则”。 在以下文字中，施坦伯格交代了自己的基本立场。他采取这一立场本身固然没有什么问题，但问题在于，他对以格林伯格为代表的形式主义批评的指责，是有一定的 偏颇的：自己总是与被称为形式主义的东西相对立；不是因为我怀疑形式分析的必要性，也不是因为我怀疑由严肃的形式主义批评家所做出的那些工作的积极价值。 而是因为我不信任他们的笃定，他们的定量手段，以及他们那种自我陶醉地漠视其工具无法测量的那部分艺术表现的做法。我最不喜欢的是他们那种令行禁止的立场——一种告诉艺术家他不应当做什么，告诉观众他不应当看什么的态度。(LeoSteinberg, Other Criteria: Confrontations with Twentieth-Century Art,Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2007.p.64)施坦伯格在这里所指的，显然是格林伯格，但是，正如格林伯格在其《现代主义绘画》的“后记”里所说的那样，他的文章经常被误解为“告诉艺术家该做什么”，那可能是他的修辞之过：每当他描述艺术史中曾经发生过的事（was）时，他的批评家们总是把他理解为是在颁布规范性的“应当”（should）。当然，格林伯格的这一自我辩解是否在理尚可讨论，但有关他的理论的一般接受史效果却是：他似乎已经难逃“告诉艺术家应该做什么”的指控了。
现代主义绘画的还原论观念是指：大约自马奈以来的绘画被视为一种认知之事，其中某种品质（例如实在性）、几套准则（例如平面性及平面性的边界），或 问题核心（例如如何认可绘画基底的实在品格），是不断进步地被揭示为绘画的构成性本质的——其进一步的隐含则是，一直以来都是如此。这在我看来是极大的错 误，不是因为现代主义绘画不是一种认知之事，而是因为它极大地误构了现代主义绘画的那种认知类型。现代主义画家在其作品中所发现的东西——他的画给他以启 示的东西——并非所有（all）绘画不可还原的本质，而是，在绘画史的当下一刻，能说服他其作品既能与现代主义绘画，也能与前现代主义绘画（这些绘画的品质在他看来是毋庸置疑的）放在一起加以比较的东西。(Michael Fried, Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1998, pp.35-36)。弗雷德自己交代他的这种方法，得自其友人、美国哲学家卡维尔（Stanley Cavell）的启发，而卡维尔则是当代哲学家中对后期维特根斯坦的理论进一步加以阐发并向前推进的少数几个重要学者之一。弗雷德将这一方法概括为“本质 概念的历史化”。所谓本质概念的历史化，是指将原先在一般本质主义思维影响下被视为某事物本质的东西，理解为是历史性地形成的。具体到绘画实践，当格林伯 格将绘画的本质还原为“平面性”时，弗雷德则将现代主义绘画的本质，视为19世纪以来的现代艺术史持续质疑并重新加以稳定的绘画的种种常规的产物：平面性及平面性的边界不应该被认为是“绘画艺术不可还原的本质”，而是某种类似某物之被视为一幅画的最起码条件（minimal condition for something’s being seen as a painting）的 东西；因此，关键的问题不是那些最起码的、永恒的条件是什么，而是，在某个既定时刻，能迫使我们相信我们可以继续将它视为一幅画的东西是什么。这不是说绘 画没有本质；而是断言，那种本质——例如那种能够迫使人们相信它是一幅画的东西——主要是由最近的过去那些重要作品决定的，因而也是出于对最近的过去那些 重要作品的回应而持续地加以改变的。绘画的本质不是某种不可还原的东西。毋宁说，现代主义画家的任务是要发现那些常规，在一个既定的时刻，这些常规单独就 可以将他的作品的身份确定为绘画。这样一来，现代主义绘画的本质概念，就被历史化了。也就是说，现代主义绘画的本质，不再是一劳永逸的“平面性”（如格林伯格所说），而是，在某个历史时刻，使人们将某物视为一幅画的最起码条件。而这个最起码条件，是可以随着历史的变化而变化的，因而它总是临时的。为了说明各个不同的历史时刻，现代主义绘画本质的这种临时性，弗雷德不惜耗时近30年，完成了“现代主义艺术史三部曲”。在这三部曲，特别是第一部《聚精会神与剧场性》中，他更清晰地界定了已经在其著名论文《艺术与物性》中提出的基本概念：剧场性、物性、实在主义等等。弗雷德在论文《艺术与物性》中指出，极简主义通过强调其作品的物性——这种强调否认了赋予观众以适当的审美经验的地位——从而背叛了现代主义对媒介的探索。 极简主义（弗雷德语带讥讽地称其为“实在主义”）提供了一种“剧场性”（theatricality），而不是“在场性”（presentness）；它 将观众排斥于他或她日常的、非超越性的世界中。格林伯格对现代主义绘画的媒介特征的强调，源于但不同于形式主义-现代主义理论的奠基者罗杰·弗莱（Roger Fry）。弗莱是第一个指出伦勃朗等老大师绘画中的笔触价值的现代批评家，他在为后印象派画家辩护时，曾将塞尚等人大胆暴露笔触的画法追溯到晚年伦勃朗： “一般而言，荷兰画家被局限在一种最后加工完成的虚伪表面上，而不敢使用更有表现力的方法。正是这一点使得伦勃朗成为出类拔萃的典范。因为正是伦勃朗，在 其晚年揭示了物质材料的充分表现潜力。对他来说，没有什么东西是惰性的，相反，材料为观念所渗透，并仿佛为观念所极化，因而画面上的每一颗粒子都变得灵动起来。”罗杰·弗莱：《塞尚及其画风的发展》，
Column, Stanford's Leo Steinberg, (the United States, 1920 -) is the university of Pennsylvania Benjamin rich lake professors, professor Lin, a famous Renaissance art history expert, is also one of the most outstanding art critic. The author of "the Renaissance art and modern forgetfulness of the sexuality of Christ", "Michelangelo's last paintings", "the last supper of leonardo forever, Lawson's encounter," the alternative rules ", etc. Stanford's mainly as a Renaissance art expert, to step in the criticism of contemporary art. He is the basic path of the great art historian pan's base (pief) pioneered by the image study method. Despite his western painting in the Renaissance and after image studies about Christ sexuality, stirred controversy, but his influence can be seen from the following facts: the summer of 1983, one of the most famous art period issue of contemporary American "October" (October) in the whole period, to discuss his book "the Renaissance art and modern forgetfulness of the sexuality of Christ". Help us to understand the background, the image is to learn how to exactly constitutes the mainstream as the 50 s and 60 s the opposite of art history and art criticism mode of formalism. Stanford, is "the alternative rules" berg platform of criticism thought, later became the criticism corpus with the same title (Oxford University press, 1972 edition; university of Chicago press, 2007 edition). In this paper, after a brief prologue, divided into eight parts. But from the point of the theme, it can be divided into two up and down. The last is broken, next is made. Redefines the desire to break with Mr Greenberg formalism criticism ideology represented by the United States, the next is to ask for his own rule of "alternative". In the following text, Stanford's confessed his basic position. He took a position itself is no problem, but the problem is that he represented by Mr Greenberg's formalism criticism, there is a biased: oneself always opposed to something called the formalism; Not because I doubt the necessity of formal analysis, also not because I doubt by serious socialist critics of the work, in the form of positive value. But because I don't trust their betting, and their quantitative techniques, as well as their narcissism to disregard the tools that part of the art can't be measured. I don't like the most is that they are the sort of stop position - an artist told him he ought not to do, tell the audience what he should not see attitude. (Leo Steinberg, Other Criteria: Confrontations with Twentieth - Century Art, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2007. P. 64) Stanford's referring to here, is obviously greenberg, but, as Mr Greenberg in its "modernist painting" in The "postscript", his article is often misunderstood as "told The artist what to do," that was probably his rhetorical: whenever he described has ever happened in Art history (was), his critics have always understood as him in to enact normative "should be" (should). , of course, green's a self-justification, it's an open question whether reasonable, but the general effect of the history of his theory is that he seems to have not escape "tell what artists should do" charges.
Criticized formalism to form as a single variable, from overall atmosphere of the art, which in his view, is simply impossible. Narrow the scope of the reference has been formalism thought the pretensions of tasks, but there are still some difficult and serious thinking. Since art is so complex that its flavor is so endless, so organize art value in the form of a single factor, once, in the 19th century, is an amazing cultural achievements. This attempt is to through the single variable isolated, in a way that is science discipline of art criticism. Aim of "the essence of art - whatever you call it is composition of abstract unity, or anything else enough to prevent its collapse or vacillation, is assumed to be from all works of art. While the whole meaning of the scope of regulations are not allowed to deal with "subject", because the theme in the best case is just no harm, usually in the form of case becomes burden. Critics in the form of socialist ethics, ideal for the artist's expressive intent, also not influenced by the culture, learn to turn a blind eye to its irony or images, else goes to plan, like red firth (Orpheus) out of hell. A bigger objection relates to greenberg handling of the former modern art, it needs to be discussed because Mr Greenberg modernism is defined in the opposite of old masters. If this opposition becomes unstable, so might need to reopen the defined modernism - defined by alternative criterion. Greenberg says, the old master of illusion to the art cover art, conceal art media characteristic, deceive audiences; Modernism painting to the art reveal art, highlight the media characteristic of art. And Stanford's argument strategy is: first of all, he provided a large number of examples, shows that it is not the case, the illusion of the old masters does not cover media characteristics, on the contrary, they highlight the virtual characteristics of painting in a variety of means. Such as Rembrandt: consider the typical old masters, namely quick sketch. If the pen brush and ink before dark brown, or in connection with the image of the old woman appeared at the same time, the Rembrandt's sketch will become a modernist works? The painter, in my opinion, the most don't want to do is to hide his medium, or hide his art; He wants, and also got, which aroused by the image with paper, pen and ink be explicitly pointed out that the tension between material. Moreover, from the perspective of style, such a sketch is the old master the art of an integral part of. Here, Stanford, zuckerberg is Rembrandt paintings in latter years, example by (reading woman, about 1639-40 years). If Rembrandt's pen and ink, he notes, prior to or at the same time and the paint in the woman's image appears, if Rembrandt clearly showed the medium of painting and painting content, the tension between the Rembrandt's sketch will become a modernist works? In Stanford's point of view, Rembrandt aren't ready to cover up the medium interface, that's what he wants to arouse the greenberg said old masters to want to hide the "tension", namely the brush and ink between the material and the image they depict explicitly pointed out that the tension. As a result, the Stanford's point of view, Mr Greenberg's theory is untenable. Stanford, of course, I think that's will be too simplified greenberg's theory. Greenberg modernism painting theory, allowed an exception, of course, is not impossible. Because his argument is that since the second half of the 19th century the general trend of western modernism painting. This general trend, it is compared with the classical painting. It can always allow exceptions. Rembrandt later years that the medium of painting, emphasize the practice of the expressive force of brush strokes and material, exception of classical painting, rather than the norm of classical painting.
Stanford, secondly, zuckerberg also with modernism painting in the new type of delusion, that modernism is not lack of illusion in reverse, is just a new kind of illusion: on the contrary, if the audience tend to modernism painting as a landscape space of the abstract, so what? Sculptor tang Judd (Don Judd) complained that the 1950 s New York school of painting made him keenly noticed what they contained the planarity of - "void" and "illusion" space ". He said later, "roscoe whole works are based on a large number of illusion. It is very vain. The whole piece of work is floating in the space area. Compared with Newman, his work is absolutely there is a certain depth. However, I finally feel, all the painting on the space illusion of." As a result, Mr Greenberg between modernism and the old masters, established by don't seem to set up. Since cannot be established, so Mr Greenberg's theory of painting media cannot, of course, as a definition of sexual definition of modernism. Therefore, we need to another criterion to define. Stanford, and the criterion, is he's offered alternative criterion. Stanford's were the first to publicly criticised Mr Greenberg, and quite powerful. But molisch's criticism has problem. The biggest problem is that in spite of the unique historical background greenberg criticism theory, to a great extent, eliminated the greenberg's historical position. He put Mr Greenberg at all since the 15th century western art history to the witness, this way both the effective aspect, but also has its irrational side. As molisch's criticism in context, greenberg shouldn't use Kang Delai will be demonstrated by the modern historical or theoretical, molisch's approach is likely to be evolved into a seemingly historicism and historical view, according to his logic, Kant put forward rational self-criticism, I'm afraid is untenable, because rational self-criticism, at least can be traced back to the age of Socrates and Plato, as Nietzsche once thought. And Mr Greenberg's historical position, just that he provides for modernism painting since the second half of the 19th century, so far still belongs to the most clear and reliable theory summary, regardless of the theory for all the richness that art history is how to thin, but it still constitutes one of the most persuasive to clarify. In the United States, greenberg will formalism criticism to the climax, Stanford's in Mr Greenberg's opponents are mounted the stage of history, at the time, formalism is the mainstream of the world art history and literary criticism. But, in the last 30 years, emerged the formalism of the western "cultural studies" vision. Visual culture research breaks through the traditional mode of art history, strong adjustable external factors (class, race, gender, etc.) the influence of the production and consumption of visual images. Therefore, the formalism concept of art history and criticism, upside down into the mainstream of the present. In his later years, Stanford, berg finally said meaningfully, he found himself is a real form.
As the greatest influence in the second half of the 20th century western art critic, clement greenberg for contemporary art theory and criticism has left a very precious legacy, he provides the modernism art by far the most clear reasoning, and therefore the starting point of discussing theory and criticism of contemporary art. Stanford, and his successors column, berg, Michael Fred, or criticised Mr Greenberg's theory from the perspective of art history, or promote the greenberg's thought from philosophy, until today, they issue still constitute the focus of art history and theory of art discipline widely discussed. Clement Greenberg (Clement Greenberg, 1909-1994) is the second half of the 20th century America's most important art critics, is perhaps one of the greatest art critic of all time. He is said to be the "Abstract expressionism" (the Abstract Impressionism), a spokesman for the main, it was his, makes Pollock (Pollock), roscoe (Rothko), and other native American or immigrants painter's reputation on the world stage. Because he represents the main point of the modernist art theory of procedure, and he became watershed of modernism and postmodernism. Almost all the sympathy or support the modernist to defend him, at the same time, almost all the postmodernists first will be the target of criticism. Greenberg, artistic value and methodology in The avant-garde and vulgar "(" The Avant Garde and Kitsch", 1939), The article tends to mature. In this paper, greenberg said the avant-garde or modernism art is rejecting capitalism culture means of industrial products. Loading with German word Kitsch (meaning "there") to describe capitalism - the art of consumerism. , by contrast, "completely from the public, specialization, avant-garde poets or artists through the art to lift it into an expression of absolute height... to seek to maintain its high level of art." Greenberg, this scheme is the marxism political science mix with some of the Bauhaus aesthetics. Greenberg will be vulgar art origins date back to the industrial revolution brought about by the social differentiation, the rise of cultural popularization, and the birth of cheap art market. He will not only American capitalist commodities, but also to the Nazi Germany and the Soviet union's official art, are classified as vulgar art. In Mr Greenberg's view, rejection of vulgar art, upside down demand for senior art firmly stand. But he thinks there is a high art special pattern. Greenberg when writing the paper, there are mainly four art movement in the United States: "the American scene movement" (" American - scene "), social realism (social realists), the influence of cubism Abstract art (" American Abstract Artists ") and surrealism, never took root in the United States, but because of the arrival of many European surrealism Artists, also see forces). Greenberg, the former Both not interested; For him, they basically is to serve political vulgar art. He also look down on surrealism, he thinks, is to painting surrealism's new illusion (to imagine a window of the world). In the 40 s, unclear modernist paintings of main channel leads to surrealism or abstract expressionism. Greenberg continued, often aggressive debate, in the view of thought at that time Read from the former to the latter, played a key role. Mr Greenberg's early thought by Marx, Marx and hoffman (Hans Hofmann). Graves on the study of marxist theory, made him interested in avant-garde art happened, because the avant-garde art suggests that abstraction is a form of revolution, narrative paintings popular interest from the United States. But it is more important for Mr Greenberg influence from German artist and art educator Hans hoffman. In 1938 to 39 years, greenberg took an evening course at the hoffman. There, hoffman emphasizes the drawing picture quality - in the form of the flat canvas colour, line, plane and various shapes to curry favor with "-". In graves in the criticism of 40 and 50 s, he developed the idea, forging them into a unique group of evaluation tools. As the last defense of American modernism art work theory summary, greenberg published one of his most influential papers "Modernist Painting" (" Modernist Painting "). This article outlined a formalism theory, in which artists of painting elements (especially the picture plane) in the form of the overriding concern, became his interpretation is a common thread in modern art history. From Edward Manet (Edouard Manet) to 40 and 50 s of the 20th century New York school of contemporary painting, greenberg traces a continuous strip subject material, illusion and painting space clues. Due to the inherent logic of painting media, painting, rejected a narrative, instead of in the form of painting unique quality. Among them, his definition of modernism, is considered by far one of the most clear argument about the theory of modernism: the essence of modernism, is in a unique way of critical disciplines itself, not to overthrow it, but in order to more firmly establishes its ability range. Kant (Kant) using logic to determine the boundary of the logic, although he withdrew a lot of the jurisdiction of logic from the old, but still fall within the scope of logic, it is the basis of more strong. Greenberg believes the nature of the modernism this self-criticism, from but different in the criticism of the enlightenment. The enlightenment opened up by human reason this powerful ideological weapon to criticize all kinds of human affairs. Every human activity are required to establish on the basis of rational. Similarly, art also must implement the proven itself: every kind of art have to implement this to prove myself. Needs to show the unique and reduction is not only the general art, but also unique in each kind of special art and reduction. Every kind of art, through its own practice and works, to determine the exclusively personal to it. Admittedly, when doing so, every kind of art will narrow the scope of its ability to, but at the same time, it will also make what within the scope of the keep is more reliable. Greenberg is unique, not only lies in the general sense of modernism (mainly a way of thinking) back to the enlightenment of the principle of self-criticism, also lies in the special sense of modernism art, with each kind of specific artistic media characteristic: the ability of every kind of art is unique and appropriate scope exactly with the media all of the unique properties of consistent. Self so it became a critical task to from each kind of art of special effects to exclude any potential or borrowed from other artistic media gained from other artistic media of no effect. Therefore, each kind of art will become a "pure", and found in the "purity" and the assurance of its quality standard and its independence. "Purity" mean to define themselves and self-criticism of art career has become a strong self defined career. Link to this unique painting arts, greenberg further pointed out that the medium is the uniqueness of its limitations: realism and naturalism art conceal the art medium, use art to cover; Modernism is using art to remind. Constitute the limitations of painting media - the shape of the flat surface, basal, paint belong to sex - in the old masters there is treated as some negative factors to treat, can only implicitly or indirectly recognized. In modernism, as these limitations is seen as positive factors, and are recognized and open. Manet's painting because of its publicly announced the picture plane of bold and forthright, and become the first batch of modernism. In manet inspired, impressionist painter gave up painting color and translucent color, make the eyes of the audience eyes exposed in the naked truth: they use colour is from paint tube or extrusion of pigments in the paint box. Cezanne (Cezanne) gave up a lifelike or correctness, so that his stroke or composition more specifically match the rectangular shape of the canvas. In all these restricted factors, the greatest feature of the painting is its "plane". Therefore, in Mr Greenberg's view, a modernist painting, is constantly to the planarity history: however, it is inevitable to plane painting on the surface of the pressure, the modernism drawing art criticism and define their own ways, which is much more fundamental than any other things. Because only the planarity is characteristic of painting art unique and exclusive. Painting of the closed shape is a kind of qualification or specification, Shared with stage art; Colour is not only to the theater, and Shared with sculpture specification or means. Due to plane is painting a picture not Shared with any other art the only condition, thus modernism painting is toward the planarity, rather than toward any other direction. Nature, greenberg did not forget, to pay attention to in the plane of the painting, not the modern professional painter, in fact, emphasis on depicting three-dimensional illusion of the old masters of socialism has realized the medium of the fundamental characteristics of painting, but he still believes that the old masters of the main concern is how to use art to cover art, i.e. using the three dimensional illusion to mask painting planarity the fact that the old masters have realized the necessity of the protection is known as the picture plane complete: that is, to be under the illusion of three-dimensional space the most vivid or above said planarity of persistent presence. Here comes the obvious contradiction is extremely important for the success of their art, in fact, it for all art is extremely important. The modernist neither avoidance nor resolve this contradiction; Rather, they reversed the relationship. The audience was forced to note what meaning to the planarity contains before, not after, first noticed the planarity of the painting. People before painting itself, often to see the old master paintings in the painting, the modern people to see the Lord Righteousness painting first is a picture itself. That, of course, is to watch any kind of painting, the old master or modernist paintings, the best way, however, modernism is strengthening it is the only and inevitable type. Modernism in the aspects of success is the success of self-criticism. These, constitutes the main argument of "modernist painting". But in the end, Mr Greenberg to realize certain abstract expressionism was simplified as a gimmick, and this led him to become more and more for other artists, they gave up their elements such as theme, clear writing style and so on. Green's think this process contains some kind of "purity", can reveal the truth of the canvas and two-dimensional space (plane). Greenberg has created "after painting the abstract" (Post - Painterly Abstraction) a term, used to distinguish abstract expressionism, or painting the abstract. After painting the abstract term is used in a large number of abstract artist, they are against the first generation of abstract expressionism emphasizes abstract trend of handwriting. After painting the abstract person, also known as the dominant trend of the hard edge abstract painter (hard - edged painters), such as Kelly (Ellsworth Kelly), history of Frank's (Frank Stella). They explore highly rules between shape and border, shape and the canvas on a canvas surface the basement of the relationship between the real shape. The term is also used to refer to the color gamut painter (color - field painters), such as Helen franken saller (Helen Frankenthaler), Maurice Louis (Morris Louis). They use bean thin paint directly in the ground colour of the canvas exploration area of pure color piece skin texture and visual effect. However, the art movement of boundary is fuzzy, some artists, such as Kenneth Noland, Kenneth Noland () have many common characteristics of two movements. After painting the abstract is usually considered a modernist self a continuation of critique of dialectics.
Aesthetic subversion of contemporary and traditional arts
Contemporary art and modern art is the difference between the concept of revolution and aesthetic revolution. Alignments contemporary art and modern art is relative divergence. Modern Art is freedom as the slogan against the traditional art of various art genres and trends, such as fauvism, expressionism, cubism, abstract and so on. Order to break the classical modern art, the pursuit of pure art. With respect to the various norms of classical art, modern art really gives artists the freedom. But the other hand, modern art itself, its interior and there are a variety of new rules - to get rid of all the elements and painting irrelevant. Contemporary art in the United States prior to the occurrence and development of the 1960s and 1970s, cultural and political realities echoes the tide, it is a thought disorder but open era, astronaut, sexual revolution, birth control pills, rock, hippies, Berlin Wall, the Cold War, the Cuban missile crisis, the Chinese Cultural Revolution, the Vietnam War, and so on, all affect the American intelligentsia, but also affect the average American, so that they lost, confused, so they had doubts existing order. The artist as one of the sensitive one, by the age wave affected and infected, consciously or unconsciously, confusion and confusion involved in this thought of his work. By the late 70's style, intellectual confusion and confusion in getting a new understanding and exploration, which is opposed to the existing order, concerns were ignored in the past the edge of culture, such as female culture, minority culture, different sexual orientation subculture and the like. Thrust of this new phenomenon is opposed to centralism, because of the center is the foundation of the existing order to establish and sustain. In the 1960s and early 1970s, European philosophy and intellectual circles there has been an initial deconstruction, Lagos center it against Romania, against structuralism talked about order. Deconstructionist theory quickly spread to America, and the United States ** heart ideology coincide, then, postmodernism began to grow. American contemporary art began in the 1980s, the main idea is the basis of deconstruction, the cultural environment is Correspondingly Postmodernism. In the 1990s and the 21st century, from Europe Marxism, especially Marxist Frankfurt School of social criticism in the United States is popular, and the British and French cultural materialism of contemporary phenomenology thinking on contemporary American culture influences pole large, and spawned a new school of thought history of the United States. In the past the painting, sculpture and architecture in the three art forms, sculpture and installation closer, we can say that the concept of revelation of the sculpture style device. To the 20th century, the device has become the mainstream of contemporary art, but in the 21st century, means a dominant position in the concept of art has been challenged by performance art. Thus, the device will move towards large-scale and integrated in order to seek a way out. Large and comprehensive are complementary, in such works, painting is not only a means of background, and become part of the device, but as the exhibition hall of the building, also interact with the device occurs, and become one. Subsequently, style photography, video, behavior, also joined in, not only the sheer size of the device, but also to break the boundaries of artistic styles. Furthermore, once the device to the outside, then combined with land art, video and more use of space art and time to break the boundaries of art. All in all, the contemporary art: diversity, difference, regional, national, local consciousness, personal identity, respect for tradition, sense of compromise, questioning philosophy, re-interpretation of classical, popular culture and folk culture, skepticism, uncertainty, irrationality humane care ....... After an early free-form modern art form, it ceased to exist. Clear boundaries between various genres, mutually exclusive organizations, believe that their art is the pioneer, the most avant-garde, competing for leadership. Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase" because of factors with futuristic Cubism without being accepted, fully proved the shackles of modern art artist. Contemporary art against modern art, it is the discovery of modern art and classical art, all tied with the artist's creation. Contemporary art has no rival, no authority, no one is more avant-garde artists can do whatever they want something. Environmental art, happenings, performance art, performance art, earth art ...... These are the traditional arts can not be summarized. The existing concept of art does not restrict the artist's creation, and that the concept of art based on the creation of new works and continuous expansion. As long as there is a good idea, in any medium, in any form can become contemporary art. The pursuit of art purely of Modern Art, to get rid of all the elements and painting has nothing to do, just consider the art itself. Modern Art emphasize the artist's subjective mental performance, more performance art works lost, manic, twisted, pessimistic feelings, this is the portrait of a modern industrialized society into subsequent to the psychological impact of people. Large color gamut, hard-edge painting full rationality. These modern art gradually get rid of the human factor. Contemporary artists equality, normal heart, to face the art itself and art and life, trying to change in the hierarchy of art. Modern Art lofty position naturally aroused dissatisfaction contemporary artists, they want to abolish the boundaries of art and life. Readymades, life unholy, became the artist's use of the media and depicted object with artistic value. Even some artists - such as Beuys, etc. - will be moved into the art of living, their lives as the arts. Classical art is the pursuit of superb technology, modern art is to pursue the creation of forms and styles. Numerous modern art history has fully demonstrated this - Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Dada, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionist artists ...... a lifetime, others are trying to find a way not used The new art style. Because, for modern art, it did not create, it means there is no existence. Contemporary art is conceptual. Techniques, media, form is not the most important, the most important is the wisdom of the way to express their ideas. Contemporary art is life concerns, social concerns. Environmental pollution, democracy and freedom, racism, sexism, ...... Contemporary artists are concerned. Therefore, as Hsieh, Zhang Huan and so has the ability of introspection outstanding contemporary artists, ideas, they use their work expressed by the community and people ask questions, thus changing people's lives, is a better life, people's physical and mental to more favorable direction. The development of modern art in the name of a genre that is basically more "avant-garde" replace a previous ruling in arts genre model of development, and the development of contemporary art is no longer in such a linear model development. Contemporary art is concerned, no genre is mainstream, is more avant-garde, there is no one authoritative master artists. We can even say that the artist is no opponent can be compared, because all forms are accepted. Contemporary art in time refers to the art of today, the connotation mainly refers to the art of modern spirit and with modern languages. In the formal language of contemporary art in an open, pluralistic and emphasize experimental characterized contemporary art not only to contemporary reality of contemporary people feel and think, should also explore the possibility of trying to go beyond the construction of some sort. Contemporary art as a cultural phenomenon, is born out of, its manifestations are diverse from the alienation of modern art. It has a very strong theoretical support, such as Derrida's deconstruction, Saeed post colonialism, feminism since Simone de Beauvoir, Foucault's "civilized" subversion, Lyotard on the "grand narrative" Digestion ...... which together constitute a symphony, critique, beyond the modern western philosophy. With the knowledge of which hermeneutics reveal primitive build a new foundation for knowledge, the basis of modern art is not rational and orderly, but people's lives. Contemporary artists are trying to create a new concept of art, showing a noble and sublime after the completion of artistic beauty, beyond the purely modern art, fine, noble, and so strict aesthetic imperative of the kind of art outside dazzling brilliance. British and French cultural materialism of contemporary phenomenological thought has important implications for the contemporary art of. Contemporary culture began in the last century, contemporary thinking attitude to hold a logical concept and structural interpretation of Hermeneutics in philosophy, the main idea is the basis of deconstruction. Deconstruction to unravel the myth of its underlying methodology provided. Deconstruction deconstruct any forms through language to convey ideas, certainly neither historical experience, do not believe the source of the history of its authenticity, but the philosophical discourse as deconstruction language, this attitude leads to deconstruction itself Thoughts on the basis of weak things. This is not nihilism or anti-intellectualism, but the strategy can interpret the concept contained in the text. In the postmodernist view, they doubt the future, but for the enlightenment of the modern. However, after a few years, this trend has inspired many cultural movement. Prior knowledge further elaboration of the Frankfurt School of alienation, which in turn lead to a radical leftist revolutionary Marxist Herbert Marcuse Herbert Marcuse (Germany, 1898-1979) against the capitalist industrialization and technological progress of society, after Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer , (Germany, 1900-2002) reinterpreted the historical truth of experience and language; another Habermas Jürgen Habermas, (Germany, 1929) of the "public domain" publicsphere "re feudalization" refeudalization, Contemporary Capitalism Critical to propose a new reason to go compromise route. "Postmodern condition" author, "postmodernism" naming by Lyotard Jean-François Lyotard (France, 1924-1998) do not agree with, that modern science is characterized by rejection or repression builds on the narrative of legitimacy form, emphasizing the rhythm of narrative form can accommodate fixed and irregular nature of time. Nietzsche inherited from irrationalism, the Deleuze (Gilles Deleuzu, 1925-1995), in the 1960s with "difference" as the keynote, presented the concept of original literary implication, it must be filled with ideological diversity . And Foucault Michel Foucault, (France, 1926-1984) of the new Nietzschean. Foucault, the "truth" is the result of the exercise of power, and were merely using the power tools. Foucault, power system relies on the establishment of a truth can be questioned through discussion, knowledge, history, etc., by emphasizing the physical, belittle thinking, or through artistic creation can be a challenge to such a power. Modern Art: international, anti-traditional, experimental, stylized, formal beauty, identity, standardization, Canonization, eternity, elitism, idealistic, utopian, advocating science and technology, the pursuit of perfection, order, rule ....... Contemporary art, the concept first. Artistic creation liberated, coexist, it is dispelled elite of consciousness, the development of multimedia multicultural artistic expression to give more possibilities. Modern art, always walk in the framework of the art itself, just as a snowball in snow, mud wallowing, the creation of art is always a body in the form of process improvement. Contemporary art is the development direction of a diverse vibrant coexistence, there is no rigid distinction between contemporary art and modern art. When the art into the contemporary art now still exist and develop, these art forms with performance art, installation art and other contemporary art forms, like the audience to accept, even classical art style also recognized the public, they also coexist and their development.
More and more common in the connotations of contemporary art with contemporary spirit and contemporary art language. Art in the contemporary, inner meaning of aesthetic replaced Mr Greenberg advocate of the modernist aesthetic and artistic value of materialism extrasensory definition of beauty, find something is beautiful, it is simply a pleasant experience. Realized that transcends the sensory pleasure from feeling, produce high-level lofty and judgment of the sublimation, this is a new aesthetic field, than the general material has higher aesthetic realm and life value. In the last century of avant-garde art to break the traditional aesthetics, it is a historical reality, but is not equal to aesthetics does not exist. Is the philosophy of art, art is beautiful and noble property parted from aesthetics, art is in the common elements in people's lives. For example, digital art is the forefront of the development of the new style of contemporary art. As a result of the digital art characteristics of science and technology, the cross-border span larger, more comprehensive, not easy to accept this new style of contemporary art. Second, the comprehensive characteristics of contemporary art, make images and movies can make use of the paradox is, to present the development and present situation of contemporary art, the image and the film itself is a big style of contemporary art. About digital art, Chinese artist Tan Liqin (Liqin Tan, 1957 -) was engaged in ink paintings and installation art, he turned to the digital art in the early 21st century, after nearly 10 years of exploration, the device, painting, anime, integrated computer technology, making a comprehensive digital works of art. And he works in the output of the printed side also could usefully, try out different materials, the production process is full of exploratory and producing results. Because Tan Liqin works explore the development direction of digital art in the new century, in recent years, on the north American and international influence is bigger, so hope that domestic art more and more attention.
More about to present contemporary Art with video and film, PBS company produced a series of documentary film \"21st century Art (Art: 21). This film was started in 2003 making, about a year (or season), each episode is about 4 hours long, introduce 10 to 20 artists, at least 5 sets, has been introduced to date introduced nearly a contemporary artists. This film on the display by the artist's readme, mostly in the studio monologue, by the artist to the audience about his art activities, without involvement of others. But because there is no narrator, play the host, the audience is difficult to understanding of the artists have a system, more can't in the context of the history and culture of contemporary art to the artist. Maybe, this is just the film want hints: body in contemporary art, difficult to face. American contemporary art and the development of ecology, and main trend as its cultural context, interaction and cultural trends play a leading role, restricts the development direction of art, but art is not completely passively, but showed their sense of direction, show the importance of orientation. It's like the west and low in geographic trend, determines the flow of the river toward the east, but the specific how flow method, is the river in the face of the valley and the plain to make choices and decisions.
Contemporary American culture from the first half of the 20th century, European modernist cultural ideological trend in the development, the development is not completely inheritance, but considerably, and the deviation of the mutual influence. As a result, it is American culture won independence in the second world war, by the end of the 70 s and the 80 s, American culture and the postmodern ideological trend. Then, in the 90 s to the end of the 20th century, postmodern culture development to the peak, from which the academic trend of cultural studies, this trend has a large tendency is a departure from the postmodernism, was called \"postmodernism\", but this title is not popular. In the first decade of the 21st century, in the cultural studies keen appeared countless mainstream, a tendency, the post-modern, rebound recovery center, etc. All this, became the cultural context of contemporary art, determines the development trend of contemporary art in the United States. But at the same time, the contemporary art has made a show of their own sense of direction, in the background of cultural trends, shows the conceptualization of orientation. From modernism art genre to the changes of the contemporary art is gradually ran, and is to break out. Some schools in a certain stage in the history of art, in contemporary again emphasized again, dubbed the \"new\" or \"after\", some art form has been in existence in the early period, but is still within the category of avant-garde. Some just a flash in the pan, or regional. The following illustrate some, but not include all of them. Contemporary art refers to the art of today on time, on the connotation and contemporary language mainly refers to the spirit and contemporary art. Is now exhibition is generally use the idea of \"contemporary art\", because the term \"modern art\" confused \"modern art\" and have been, at the same time, the \"contemporary art\" not only embodies the \"modernity\", and the artist \"contemporary\" based on today's social life, the artist in today's cultural environment, is facing the reality of today, their work is bound to reflect the characteristics of The Times today. Are artists of contemporary art reflect all aspects of people's life and performance, including economic, political, cultural, moral, and social change brings all sorts of psychological change.
In the aspect of art form of expression of contemporary artists have done a lot of exploration, the concept and expression of space opens up a lot of art. The Whitney biennial is a dedicated to advocate for the purpose of native American art biennale. The role of it in the United States is to grasp the development trend of art, discover new artists, and therefore is regarded as a barometer of the current situation of the development of American art. Although the Whitney biennial has long been under the influence of different period, cultural, political, and social movements, however, it always has new and young artists curator idea has never changed. The Whitney biennial in 2010. On the mechanism of curator, Whitney biennial 2010 curator system is still adopted. The Whitney biennial selection with 2008 women double curators, Whitney biennial 2010 curator as by two men, were born in Italy's francesco boehner meters (Francesoo Bonami) and Gary caliendo - Mr Alexander (Gary Carrion - Murayari). Boehner m is an international independent curator in the minority showed extremely inclusiveness to various forms of art curator, has been planning the Venice biennale in 2003. Gary is young curator was born in the 1980 s, the current the Whitney assistant, senior curator of Whitney's collection has a profound understanding. In the exhibits, schmid (Aurel Schmidt) to draw a cow 7 feet tall person painting. The frame, a mysterious image which has the head of a cow was a banana peel, cigarettes, JiuPingGai and a condom package. The image at the same time represents the creation and destruction. Through the fine fine depict, schmid challenged conventional beauty and masculinity, as well as the standard of decomposition, decomposition and waste. The work shows the author's interest lies in exploring what is full of masculinity, and how to show sex appeal and masculine. Charles (Charles Ray) works on paper \"Untitled\" (Untitled, 2009) occupied a space. This group of color with flowers as the theme of works but the feeling is very strong and lively. Roland, lex na (Roland Flexner) works \"Untitled\" (Untitled, the 2008-09) expanded the definition of sketch, created a similar effect of strange painting ink and wash. These works draw lessons from the Japanese painting skill, artists through soaking, washing, to ink on paper, scratches on the paper, formed the painting, have the effect of the decorative pattern determines the fickle space, people can identify with rich of terrain or blackwater of the monsters in the face. Picture image between the visual landscape and the purely abstract. Positive results of these enriched the aesthetic experience of people, the problem is the lack of a common standard and personalized art, in art are good and bad are intermingled, some from the public, to the extreme. Because of the social development and progress, the art of the species and abundance in contemporary art, a variety of artistic way, far more than any period of history.
Ideas and transboundary Age Characteristics of Contemporary Art
Contemporary art is not only embodied modernity, the artist is living the reality of today's environment, contemporary art is bound to reflect the characteristics of the times today, the Contemporary. Athol art critic and philosopher, Danto Arthur Danto (USA, 1924-) that "contemporary" is a broader term, post-modern art is part of the contemporary art movement. The reason why the exhibition is now widely used "Contemporary Art" was, because of "modern art" in terms of easy and that there had been "modern art" confused, while the "contemporary art" is not only embodied in the "modern sex ", as well as the artist's life experience based on today's society" contemporary "of the artist exposure of today's cultural environment, in the face of today's reality, their work is bound to reflect the characteristics of the times today. Some art historians have a more original assertion, modern, late modern art from modern art did not reach consensus after refusing Aesthetics of Modernism has been re-established. In addition, the well-known traditional painting techniques and artistic themes of reunification, even many theorists and artists that, whether there has been so much post-modern and post-modern today, the latest avant-garde art should still be classified as modern art. And a description of some of the tendencies of contemporary art, the contemporary art has been used to denote a stage of modern art. This position was made Greenberg modern art theorist Clement Greenberg (American, 1909-1994), as well as and termed radical modernist defenders, philosopher Guattari Pierre-Félix Guattari (France, 1930-1992, ) to be sure, in his book "The last gasp of modernism" in. Neoconservatives, culture and art theorist Kramer Hilton Kramer (USA, 1928-) was described as a modernist "modernism tail limited creation." Philosophical and literary theorist Lyotard Jean-François Lyotard (France, 1924-1998), the literary critic and Marxist political scientist Fredric Jameson Fredric Jameson (USA 1934-) academic analysis suggested that there does not exist a post-modern stage is completely different from the height of modernism; on the contrary, this or that post-modernism are not satisfied only part of the modernist style of modernism, or, nurture new modernist experiments. Lyotard in terms of aesthetics and art is an important post-modernist philosophers. Generally speaking, the reason the fight is the core issue of contemporary aesthetic experience, and specific protest behavior has been reflected in different levels. First, in order to fight the shackles rational, contemporary aesthetic tends to wallow in non-mainstream, more tendencies, pornography, drugs and violence as an artistic theme impulse, become part of the contemporary art and aesthetic. He appeared in the 1990s in the United States, two new contemporary art tendencies, one concern foreign art, such as attention as the "other" of Chinese contemporary art, the second is to focus on the territory of the "others", such as artists living in the United States, other countries. It is in this context, he lived in the United States of Chinese artists Xu Bing, Cai Guoqiang, Gu Wenda, Huang ice was able to come to the fore. Likewise, America's minorities have similar artistic trajectory, such as the black art, which can be traced back to the civil rights movement of the mid-20th century. In the 1980s, the black art of getting into the mainstream, and to the late 1990s and the 21st century, blacks are no longer a special topic of art, culture no longer be divided by color, black and white artistic art, are the United States of Contemporary Art part of it. But, black artists are more concerned about the topic of the black community, for example, was born in 1971 black women artists Mi Kailin · Thomas (Mickalene Thomas), then in his works explore the home and family lineage from a personal point, the This explore the social and cultural problems ethnic groups. American Contemporary Art Aboriginal art also belong to this category, but the impact is much smaller, and infected with a strong tourism economy and business colors. However, the value of anthropology and cultural studies of Aboriginal art can not be ignored. Postmodernists Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida, (France, 1930-2004) that "the end of man" point of view, propose rejection of the body and idealism of humanism; make people self-discipline, social, historical sex; raise awareness of the critical assumptions; against free History tradition of humanism, refuted the progress of knowledge and history; exposed the philosophical established as "true science" disillusionment, philosophy and people will come to an end together. In the United States, the end of the century is the era of unrest flared up, rich cultural open era, the artists of the existing order are suspect, in confusion and bewilderment gradually a new understanding and exploration, focus on the past has been neglected female culture, minority ethnic cultures, different sexual orientation, subculture, against the existing order, against centralism, because of the center is the basis of the existing order can be established and maintained. By the early 1990s, the late 21st century, the decline of postmodernism, cultural studies up to the summit, the United States because of political aspirations of contemporary art and the concept is still dominated, artistic vision more open, express ideas is no longer confined to the visual arts. Thus, in the first decade of the 2050s, to the United States as the representative of contemporary art in Western art to be second to redefine the concept of "art" and a re-definition of European Dada and Duchamp's first year echoed. Performance art is the art of cross-border, not only in the visual arts across internal installation, photography, video and other styles, but also in the visual arts across the categories of the external boundaries of the visual arts and performing arts, visual arts and performing arts space reproduction time narrative through again. Since the categories of cross-border, performance art to outsiders caused the confusion, some people think that performance art far worse than the stage. In fact, this evaluation involves the concept of performance art, characterization, evaluation standards and other issues, and even inside the visual arts, some people lack the necessary understanding of this. On the other hand, there are some acts of artists who go to the extreme, indeed to the inner office outsiders have caused confusion. In the early 21st century, New York had been extreme female performance artist performances, challenge people to accept limits. The women artists in the gallery sex in public and visitors, and during sexual intercourse painting, the work sold to intercourse with male visitors. The idea of this behavior is actually relatively simple, but to explore the artistic behavior, commodity exchange, the relationship between body materialized, legal justice, social customs, especially the vulnerabilities and interpenetration between interspersed among these few persons, and how to exploit demand take material interests and living conditions. In fact, the real sensation of this behavior lies in the personal life of hidden content, transferred to a public space for display, meet people voyeuristic desires and psychological self-subversion, this is the challenge of thinking and behavior generally limits. New York artist Matthew Barney (Matthew Barney, 1967-) in the mid-1990s to nearly a decade in the early 21st century, with huge artistic program "cremation cycle" (1994-2002) is known. Inspiration from the works of ancient Greek mythology, Barney in which to play half-human beast 淫浪 Faun. After the secular art of the European Renaissance, the faun is a popular image, representing earthly joy. Barney's performance to record images to the final style movie. In making this work more than eight years, the implementation of each shot is a behavior, in other words, the implementation process of this program is to act as a result of realization of the recorded images. In this, Barney crossed the boundaries of visual presentation of synchronic and diachronic narrative between performance, increasing the dimension of time in the three-dimensional visual space. On the concept, the work of the cycle of life and death, to the space-time finite and infinite, addressed the issue of absolute and relative, the eternal and the momentary existence of interdependence and mutual conversion also involves gender relations. All this makes Barney works not only cross-border and cross-cultural categories on the art style, it is transboundary conceptual.
Contemporary Art in Changing Times The occurrence and development of contemporary art in the 20th century until the 1960s and 1970s, the political, economic and cultural is undergoing great changes. End of World War II, the Cold War upgraded to tear down the Berlin Wall and the Cold War, the arrival of peace, the success of space exploration, the formation of the Cuban Missile Crisis and released, Sino-US relations successful end of the Vietnam war, the whole story of Watergate, gay, rock, hippies and so on, war-weary people for peace, the economy rose in waves, made a series of political progress in the United States in the culture did not show too much optimism, whereas people with more time Modern society had doubts and confusion, the artists' social and cultural depth exploration and understanding of their opposition to the existing order, against the existing order can be established and maintained by centrism. Contemporary art focus on new ideas, reflect marginal culture, the central idea of artistic expression of non-artistic tendencies, promoting feminism, post-colonialism, ethnic art, black art, gay art, graffiti art, performance art, performance art, street art, computer art, etc. These are not new phenomena in the past the mainstream art. American political aspirations of contemporary art and the concept is still dominated, artistic vision more open, express ideas is no longer confined to the visual arts. Thus, in the first decade of the 2050s, to the United States as the representative of contemporary art in Western art to be second to redefine the concept of "art" and a re-definition of European Dada and Duchamp's first year echoed. It is due to a redefinition of the concept of art, and has not accepted the new definition of contemporary art for the United States today, we can only be described as ideological and cultural studies after reflection, to the concept as a guide. Today, there is no mainstream American art, only multiple tendencies, which is pluralism, anti-postmodern, recovery centers and the like. Today's American contemporary art, difficult to use "doctrine" like the old term to summarize, and on ecology and the status quo of contemporary American art, it is difficult to use "genre" like the traditional terminology to describe. Therefore, no mainstream that is mainstream. On the current situation, the scholars can do it is to use descriptive language to case studies. To the eighties of last century, American art back drawing up. There are many reasons, in addition to the time the concept of art: art is not outside, there is a deeper reason is something new at all, is the American economy, American collectors of art investment up to promote arts return to traditional painting eighties, a series of American Art as a "new" genre, but they are a repeat of past genres such as: Bell to Schneider, represented by neo-expressionism; with 巴斯奎尔德 as representatives. graffiti art; to PeterHalley represented a new abstract art; to Cindy Sherman represented a new concept art; to Jeff Koon as the representative of the new pop these "new" genre, which features: not linear, with some introspection. character, non-value for value. The reason for this phenomenon is that American art for sixty to seventy years had been reelected. To art events now taking place, and macro historical summary and generalization is not only difficult, but also dangerous, because the scholars in which the body can not do last objective, there may be errors of judgment. Narrative of American contemporary art, emphasizing the sense of history a century, but the period of nearly 30 years of division, the last decade of cultural orientation American contemporary art, to provide a diachronic context. In the process of transition of modern art to contemporary art, the abstract modern art in the two decades after World War II prevailed gradually to American Abstract Expressionism Abstract Expressionism development, beginning with New York as the center of this art movement is He called the New York School. Abstract Expressionism term doctrine because idiomatic 1946 American artist Achille Gorky Arshile Gorky's works made. Relates to the transition from abstract expressionism to abstract artists are: Kandinsky W.Kandinsky, Peter Mondrian P.Mondrian, Kazimir Malevich · 谢韦里诺维奇 KCMalevich, Francoise Wh Kupka F.Kupka, Paul Klee P.Klee, El Leisy Nowitzki El Lissitzky, Frank Stella Frank Stella, Jackson Pollock Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning Willem de Kooning, Robert Motherwell Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb (Adolph Gottlieb), William 巴齐奥蒂斯 William Baziotes, Mark Rothko Mark Rothko, Clifford Steele Clyfford Still, Philip plus Princeton Philip Guston, Franz Kline Franz Kline, Jasper Johns JasperJohns like. In both New York and Zurich creation Ugo · Wing Dylan (Ugo Rondinone, 1963-), he also used photography and video to record their actions show. But he has a different and Barney, he preferred space in the dimension of time and space, which tend to behave when rendering instead of a total duration of narrative. Moreover, his behavior more places in the hall interior, and therefore more direct means of images showing indirect show. On ideological terms, his behavior is not so much the concept, as it is psychological, because the artist focuses on the relationship between survival experience and memories, emphasizing the aesthetic effect of acts of reproduction processing and visual poetry, as well as a total space of time , so the time behavior of the process is converted into exhibition space apparatus. Of course there are such artists who go outdoors, such as the aforementioned New York was born in Iran Neixia Te female artists, whose works have a strong political ideas, and more emphasis on the narrative characteristics of time. To the late 20th century, photography and video have entered the contemporary art or contemporary art emerged in cross-border new style of photography and images. Senior female American photographer Cindy Sherman (Cindy Sherman, 1954-) The make-up photography, photography and video will not only unity, but unity with the behavior and device, ideas and methods are extended to the 21st century. Early in the 20th century, Canadian photography in contemporary Western art is unique to the early 2000s, Canada photography and more at the forefront of Western contemporary art. Photography and video through this period is one and reflects the penetration of the two artistic tendencies: shot put and capture, former emphasizes human, which emphasizes natural, echoing various feature films and documentary films, but also reveals the movie into the evolution trend of contemporary art. Produce and painting are closely related to photography, the Canadian senior photographer Jeff Wall (Jeff Wall, 1946-) and in New York, like Cindy Sherman is a master shot put, but Jeff Wall's works referential painting history or parody European paintings, or parody Japanese ukiyo-e, and the pursuit of dramatic effect. New York-coming photographer Claude Johnson (Gregory Crewdson, 1962-) also belong to this way, but the difference is that he deliberately manipulated impossible surreal scene and create realistic appearance, resulting in absurd contrasts feeling. For example, his masterpiece "Ophelia" on the mercy of the Shakespearean heroine drowning death of stage scenes, but photography is not Ophelia fell into the water, but dead in the living room, the ground floor with only diffuse shallow water leakage, it is impossible drowning man to death. Born in Tokyo female artists living in New York, Mariko Mori (Mariko Mori, 1967-) more stepped forward, she staged the scene settings like the temple, photography, video with the device, conduct one, the expression of transcendent and born of the will, the representative of "the fire of desire", "alien wave" and so on. With people staged opposite the current popular "expressionless aesthetics", which uses the camera eyes see an objective record of the real scene, only to capture natural images and scenes, without adding thoughts and feelings of the artist, but in fact the artist thoughts and feelings and attitudes, but quietly implied therein. This type of photography is representative of Toronto artists Burtynsky (Edward Burtynsky, 1955-), whose work looks like big scenes landscape photography, but it is in fact taken industrial and commercial development and the destruction of human activities on the natural environment. In other words, his photography is environmental protection and ecological theme, with strong criticism, it is that the concept of the relationship between man and nature, but work it gives objective and calm appearance, seems to be no expression. This deadpan photography, also introduced to the images and movies, such as the same topic Burtynsky documentary film "Manufactured Landscapes." Los Angeles Long female photographer Lufthansa · La Kate (Sharon Lockhart, 1964-) is expressionless, but her shooting people, from solemn in character, to reveal their hidden expression. Since the character of intervention, expressionless aesthetics have become deliberate arrangement, and deliberately place 拉卡特 but that her reference to the untracked structuralist theory, which is to explore the character as a signifier and signified in photography dual identity. The aesthetics feature, also appears in her video works. The basic difference is that the former video and photography temporal and spatial properties of the latter, but the former from the latter temporal spatial continuity, it is known as a moving image. Los Angeles artists are more Doug Aiken (Doug Aitken, 1968-) and play use this feature, the division and the connection of indoor space, with the broadcast of video to create large-scale installations, obtaining space in a fixed space explore the still image and a moving image timeliness. Born in the UK now lives in New York, the artist Douglas Gordon (Douglas Gordon, 1966-) was born in South Africa and now lives in New York City women artists Ken Disi Blaze (Candice Breitz, 1972-) also have similar artistic exploration, but in Conversion of space and time, they will be painting and photography and imaging devices set up to explore the boundaries of their form, and the possibility of their way to cross-border integration. In all of this exploration, both imply a potential clue that visual narrative, which is the main feature video art, is also a major feature of contemporary conceptual art. In short, contemporary art so that more people of contemporary society had doubts and confusion, the artists' social and cultural depth exploration and understanding, against the existing order, against the existing order can be established and maintained by centrism. Change the direction of contemporary art focus on new ideas, reflect marginal culture, the expression of a non-central idea of Arts tendencies.
Philosophical Thinking of Contemporary Art Deconstructing
Contemporary culture began in the last century, contemporary thinking attitude to hold a logical concept and structural interpretation of Hermeneutics in philosophy, the main idea is the basis of deconstruction. Deconstruction to unravel the myth of its underlying methodology provided. Deconstruction deconstruct any forms through language to convey ideas, certainly neither historical experience, do not believe the source of the history of its authenticity, but the philosophical discourse as deconstruction language, this attitude leads to deconstruction itself Thoughts on the basis of weak things. Contemporary artists are trying to create art with new ideas, presented after the completion of the lofty and sublime artistry, beyond the purely modern art, fine, noble, and so strict aesthetic imperative of the kind of art outside dazzling brilliance. British and French cultural materialism of contemporary phenomenological thought has important implications for the contemporary art of. This is not nihilism or anti-intellectualism, but the strategy can interpret the concept contained in the text. In the postmodernist view, they doubt the future, but for the enlightenment of the modern. However, after a few years, this trend has inspired many cultural movement. Prior knowledge further elaboration of the Frankfurt School of alienation, which in turn lead to a radical leftist revolutionary Marxist Herbert Marcuse Herbert Marcuse (Germany, 1898-1979) against the capitalist industrialization and technological progress of society, after Gadamer Hans-Georg Gadamer , (Germany, 1900-2002) reinterpreted the historical truth of experience and language; another Habermas Jürgen Habermas, (Germany, 1929) of the "public domain" publicsphere "re feudalization" refeudalization, Contemporary Capitalism Critical to propose a new reason to go compromise route. "Postmodern condition" author, "postmodernism" naming by Lyotard Jean-François Lyotard (France, 1924-1998) do not agree with, that modern science is characterized by rejection or repression builds on the narrative of legitimacy form, emphasizing the rhythm of narrative form can accommodate fixed and irregular nature of time. Nietzsche inherited from irrationalism, the Deleuze (Gilles Deleuzu, 1925-1995), in the 1960s with "difference" as the keynote, presented the concept of original literary implication, it must be filled with ideological diversity . And Foucault Michel Foucault, (France, 1926-1984) of the new Nietzschean. Foucault, the "truth" is the result of the exercise of power, and were merely using the power tools. Foucault, power system relies on the establishment of a truth can be questioned through discussion, knowledge, history, etc., by emphasizing the physical, belittle thinking, or through artistic creation can be a challenge to such a power. Postmodernists Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida, (France, 1930-2004) that "the end of man" point of view, propose rejection of the body and idealism of humanism; make people self-discipline, social, historical sex; raise awareness of the critical assumptions; against free History tradition of humanism, refuted the progress of knowledge and history; exposed the philosophical established as "true science" disillusionment, philosophy and people will come to an end together. In the United States, the end of the century is the era of unrest flared up, rich cultural open era, the artists of the existing order are suspect, in confusion and bewilderment gradually a new understanding and exploration, focus on the past has been neglected female culture, minority ethnic cultures, different sexual orientation, subculture, against the existing order, against centralism, because of the center is the basis of the existing order can be established and maintained. By the early 1990s, the late 21st century, the decline of postmodernism, cultural studies up to the summit, the United States because of political aspirations of contemporary art and the concept is still dominated, artistic vision more open, express ideas is no longer confined to the visual arts. Thus, in the first decade of the 2050s, to the United States as the representative of contemporary art in Western art to be second to redefine the concept of "art" and a re-definition of European Dada and Duchamp's first year echoed. For example, the American Contemporary Art pervert art, also known as "queer" (queer) art and post-modern and contemporary cultural studies of queer theory complement each other, it is a product of post-modern culture, and become specimens of cultural studies. In the 1980s, the famous porn artists plum poise Thorpe (Robert Mapplethorpe, 1946-1989) photography can be seen as representative of gay art, which works to sexual perversion and gained political connotations. In fact, in the post-modern and cultural studies background, female arts, minority arts, sexual perversion arts are the heart of its rebellious, anti-democratic aspirations and painted orderly political color. However, in the 21st century, due to the political philosophy it bounces postmodern art, sexual perversion of art so that more and more people feel bored. Street art is a kind of sub-culture phenomenon, is the rebellion of the younger generation, to graffiti as a visual declaration, its properties are similar to street youth gangs or gang boundary sign, on behalf of the artists include renowned Keith in New York Harlem (Keith Haring, 1958-1990) and Basikuiya (Jean-Michel Basquiat, 1960-1988). Direct enemy of street art police and government, which in the post-modern era is pushed social activists, critics and the media to the forefront of urban culture, as against the government forward. However, in a multicultural tide, the government amnesty street artists, street art to govern the use of city environment. In fact, the street art is indeed associated with environmentalism, not only because of environmental organizations and government representatives of big corporate interests that conflict, but also because the streets are mostly young environmental activists for the faith. On the other hand, large companies also incorporate street artists, street art effect of the use of advertising for business promotion, which shows its characteristic street art. By the late 90's and early 21 century, the decline of post-modernism, and cultural and academic research began to reach at peak.
Modernity and Chinese ancient landscape of intentionality
Yuan Chu Chen
Modern Problems of perception more general sense, in addition to artists and their paintings, each chapter involves some central figure - in Manet chapter, they include Pierce (CS Peirce), Klinger (Max Klinger ), Freud (Sigmund Freud) and Muybridge (Eadweard Muybridge). In Seurat's a chapter, they include Richard Wagner，Emile Durkheim，Etienne-Jules Marey and Emile Reynaud。In the Cezanne chapter, they include Husserl(Edmund Husserl), Valery (Paul Valéry), Bergson (Henri Bergson), Charles Sherrington (Charles Scott Sherrington) and the like. It is noteworthy to Clary, represented by budding scholar to give us a lesson in methodological aspects of their research. "Perception of suspension," begins at the beginning, Clary clearly states: a conscious listening, watching, or to focus attention on the way a thing, has profound historic. Whether in front of our computer screens flicker work, or watch a performance in an opera, no matter how we finish a product, complete some kind of creative or didactic mission, or more passively engaged in daily activities (eg driving or watching TV), we are in the dimension of contemporary experience required to effectively cancel or excludedfrom the current environment, a lot of things from our consciousness.
People of Song dynasty unaware of the overall image, to create habitat poetic landscape of words, images, scenery, and other aspects of grid method for in-depth study. For this issue, there are still two responses trend. One is the 19th-century type of speculative philosophy or metaphysics, including abstract artists including Kandinsky's theory, all belong to this tendency (see Kandinsky's famous book "On the Spiritual in Art"); the other is I appreciate the solution, that is, Greenberg, Michael Fred (Michael Fried) and Yves - Alain Bois large ones. They pointed out that the significance lies not in abstract art canvas plane as a container, in which thrown into point, line, surface, and constitute a form of rhythmic system, and which see a significant (or Kandinsky said "Spirit"). Further understanding the ancient division of good fortune, search Miao a really spiritual and artistic ideal landscape, the landscape of life into the hearts of the King. Focus on mining aesthetic sense from "King" to "environment" generated, you can put the traditional Chinese painting and innovation towards the deeper areas through such studies, really explore new ideas and new realm of mountains and landscape creation.
This is particularly clearly reflected in the discussion Bova, in his view, like Mondrian's primary colors and black and white color constitute straight lines, one from a picture point of view, there is no significance, meaning they can only Mondrian reflected in the permutations and combinations of these three primary colors and keep black and white lines, and among the paintings to form a system (which is typical structures critical method; in Saussure opinion, a single signifier, such as cat is does not make sense, its meaning can only build on with other means, such as differences in cap, mat, etc. Among other words, can only exist in the language structure.