Alongside Noh and Kabuki, Sarumawashi is among the oldest and most traditional of Japan's performing arts, although in this case performed by highly trained macaque monkeys. Sarumawashi evolved over a 1000-year history in Japan. Ancient Japanese chronicles refer to it as a form of religious ritual that later developed into a popular form of festival entertainment, performed all over Japan. Sarumawashi showcases the natural physical prowess of the Japanese monkey by combining acrobatic stunts with comical skits and dances. The monkey and trainer perform as one unit to create a bond between man and primate.